Air flow variation of HVAC caused by stack effect and opening a window.

Unopenable, fixed windows have been widely used in high-rise buildings in Japan, but the energy crisis has forced a reconsideration of the merits of natural ventilation with openable windows. However opening windows inhigh-rise buildings, has the disadvantage that open windows causes air flow variation of a mechanical system due to stack effect.< Reports results of a computer simulation of this problem. Describes computer program to calculate air flows in a building. Describes example building, giving air leakage and HVAC system characteristics.

Investigation of three computer programs for calculation of indoor climate.

Reports comparison of three computer programs designed to calculate room air temperature and heating loads. The programs are:< BRIS - a swedish program using a finite difference method< BYVOK - a norwegian program using the thermal response factor method

Measurement of infiltration using fan pressurization and weather data.

Presents a technique using fan pressurization results and weather data to calculate infiltration. The geometry, leakage distribution, and terrain and shielding classes are combined into two reduced parameters which allow direct comparison of wind-induced and temperature-induced infiltration. Using these two parameters and the total leakage area of the structure (found from fan pressurization) the infiltration can be calculated for any weather condition. Presents experimental results from 15 different sites for comparison with theoretical predictions.

A computer program for the calculation of natural ventilation due to wind.

Presents a simple model for the calculation of wind induced ventilation. The model requires as input, pressure coefficient data, wind direction, and the open areas for each element of the building. Gives an example of the model applied to a model livestock building. Gives flow chart and listing of computer program. Note model does not include temperature effects.

Population dose equivalent from naturally occurring radionuclides in building materials.

The authors have developed a Fortran IV computer program for estimating whole body and lung dose equivalent rates due to naturally occurring radionuclides in building materials. Two of the inputs to this program are the effects of wall thickness and the effects of a surface sealant on the gamma exposure ratedue to the increased quantity of radon daughter nuclides trapped within a wall.

CAFE - A computer program to calculate the flow environment.

CAFE is a suite of computer programs, developed by Atkins Research and Development, to solve engineering problems involving fluid flow and heat transfer. Based on a finite difference method, its main advantage over other programs is its generality, which enables problems requiring a variety of different boundary conditions to be studied.< Describes the mathematical formulation of the program and its major features. Gives examples of its application including modelling the ventilation of a building to reduce concentrations of dangerous gases.

Air infiltration research in Finland.

Describes the current research programme of the Laboratory concerning air infiltration and ventilation. Gives some technical details. The programme consists of three main projects: 1) The development of mathematical calculation models to predict the interconnections between air tightness, ventilation, air change rates, pressure conditions and energy consumption. This model will be tested in practice. 2) The development of airtight structures and structural joints and sealing methods. Evaluation of theeconomical effects of airtightness is also included in this project.

Air flows in building components.

This work deals with different aspects of air movements in building components. The investigation shows to what degree the concept of fluid mechanics can be applied to problems concerning air flows in building componenets. The applicable parts of fluid mechanics are presented as thoroughly as possible. Based on this concept, routines are outlined to make it possible to handle complex flow and pressure distribution problems. Both manual and computer calculation routines are described and the way they can be used is demonstrated in a number of examples.

A computer model for analysing smoke movement in buildings.

Describes the computer program developed for the Fire Research Station by Scientific Control Systems Ltd. to predict the movement of smoke from a fire in a building. This can be run ineither deterministic or stochastic modes.< Explains the physical model used to describe the movement of smoke through a building and outlines the computer technique used to solve the resulting equations. Presents some preliminary results obtained with the model and considers possible improvements. Discusses applications of the model.

Correlating pressurization and infiltration rate data - tests of an heuristic model.

There is a need for correlating results of pressurization tests with infiltration tests, making it possible to predict the infiltration rate of a building on the basis of a pressurization test. Discusses problems with calculation models