Natural and forced ventilation are directly and indirectly influenced by the pressure distribution around a building. Results of full-scale pressure measurements on a typical Swedish timber house are presented. The rate of air infiltration has been calculated by employing the values obtained from full-scale pressure distribution, air leakage characteristics and temperature differences. The results are compared with the actual ventilation obtained from tracer gas measurements.
In the weatherization of building structures to minimize convective heat loss, the air exchange rate is reduced. Pollutants of indoor origin are retained near the occupants. Further, outdoor pollutants may be concentrated indoors under partic
Ventilation is widely used to help maintain acceptable indoor pollutant concentrations. In this paper, the relationships between ventilation rate and indoor concentration are examined by the use of mass balance models and measured data. It is shown that the pollutant source strength and pollutant removal by processes other than ventilation can have a large impact on the indoor concentration and that maintenance of a typical ventilation rate does not ensure an acceptable indoor concentration.
Using meteorological and physical data, a model simulating pressure and air mass flow distribution in buildings was produced using the method of non-linear networks. It was used to study wind and buoyancy effects on mechanically ventilated buildings. Contents include: natural ventilation in high rise buildings with and without air-handling equipment, a study of a hospital, and calculation of the annual heat load for ventilation.
To update the National Association of Home Builders Thermal Performance Guidelines, models were developed, representative of the new houses being constructed in each American state. The models define the number and types of windows and doors,
Moisture enters an attic both from the house and from the ventilation air. It has been assumed that when the roof sheathing temperature cools below the attic air dew point, condensation occurs on the roof sheathing. If this were true, then increased attic insulation levels would require increased attic ventilation rates. Results from an experimental study are presented which show that in fact the roof sheathing is in dynamic equilibrium with moisture in the attic air, and that several hundred pounds of water can be stored in the attic wood without ill effects.
Studies the direct coupling of ventilation heat and solar gains to increase the performance of passive solar systems. Examples of particularly suitable buildings are described. The thermal model FRED, based on a thermal resistance network representing a three-zone building, is modified to include a simple airflow model driven by wind speed and temperature difference. The simulated building is ascribed symmetric permeabilities, then asymmetric permeabilities.
A simple study is described which demonstrates the relative importance of the various parameters which determine ventilation, using basically the single-cell version of the British Gas multi-cell model. The graphs presented can be used directly to estimate natural and mechanical ventilation rates under a wide variety of simple conditions. By adopting a non-dimensional approach which introduces the concept of the whole house leakage Reynolds number, the basis is laid for a more general means of estimating ventilation from graphical data sheets.
Using meteorological and physical data, a model simulating pressure and air mass flow distribution in buildings was produced using the method of non-linear networks. It was used to study wind and buoyancy effects on mechanically ventilated buildings. Calculations were made for a naturally ventilated high rise building for varying permeability distributions and air flow resistances of the building envelope, using data from real buildings and from previous cases described in the literature.
Carries out a review and evaluation of residential building energy analysis programs in 6 steps - 1. Survey of the experience and needs of electric and gas utilities in residential building energy analysis 2. Identification of currently available programs for residential energy use analysis 3. Examination and summary of intended capabilities of 10 programs 4. In depth analysis of the engineering bases of 5 programs (DOE 2.1, ENCORE-CANADA, HEAP, REAP and TRYNSIS) 5. Tests of these 5 programs 6.