Investigates a rational method of utilizing recent improvements in wind tunnel techniques and meteorological data, to estimate potential wind-generated air flow through housing in hot humid climates. The method uses mean pressure differences obtained from solid wind tunnel models together with appropriate discharge coefficients for rectangular openings. Changes in pressure distributions due to typical openings through models indicated that the use of pressure data from solid models results in errors similar to those associated with the local wind data.
A major study of wind loads on low-rise buildings has culminated in a relatively simple formulation for the wind loading for such structures. These proposed load requirements reflect many important aspects of the wind action, such as the predominance of unsteady loads, the reduction in effective loading with increased tributary area, and the provision of separate sets of loads, intended to be used together, for design of primary structural members.
Describes an energy audit procedure developed for determining economically optimal retrofits for a residential building. This audit is a microprocessor -based, interactive, site and house specific package addressing conservation, solar and wind measures. A dymnamic model of heating and cooling load is used to evaluate fuel savings. Special attention is given to the estimation of monthly average air infiltration rates, using a model correlating pressurization results with air infiltration under natural weather conditions.
Reports investigation of mean and fluctuating pressure inside buildings, induced by wind using boundary layer wind tunnel and computer simulation techniques. Mean and root-mean-square fluctuating internal pressure coefficients were both found to be monotonic functions of the ratio of windward to leeward opening areas.< The case of a single windward opening was treated as a damped Helmholtz resonator.
Describes a method, derived from bibliographical research, for air infiltration calculation in a multistorey building. The method may be used both for computer calculations, in order to determine the building thermal balance hour by hour, and for steady state hand calculations. Analytical and experimental relations have been examined for the determination of the air flow rate due to wind and stack effect.
Gives a brief historical review of the development of wind engineering as a discipline. Discusses the simulation of wind loads on buildings, the development of boundary layer wind tunnels and problems in modelling the natural wind. Describes modelling of the aerolastic behaviour of buildings andof stack gas diffusion. Describes instrumentation and measurement techniques. Indicates areas requiring further development.
Reviews existing models of air infiltration. Presents the basic formulations of the Institute of Gas Technology model. Outlines the data required by the model. Reports the refinement of the model by incorporating new subroutines. Describes testing of the model using data from IGT test homes, Princeton, Ohio and Canada. Comparison between model and test data shows that the model gives estimates of the rate of air infiltration with resonable accuracy.
Describes an energy audit, developed to determine economically optimal retrofits for residential buildings, based on actual on-site measurements of key indices of the house. Measurements made are; overall energy consumption, furnace efficiency, air leakage measured by pressurization, thermostat settings and window dimensions. The data is fed to a microprocessor and a program suggests retrofits.< Describes the model for estimating heating and cooling loads on the basis of "dynamic degree days", and the algorithm for calculating air infiltration.
Discusses sources of radon in buildings and the prediction of levels of radon and daughters. Derives differential equations governing the decay and venting of radon and its daughters. A computer program based on these equations has been written to predict radon and daughter concentrations, total potential alpha energy concentration and equilibrium factor. The program can account for time dependence of ventilation and emanation rates and is readily used by building designers.