The indoor air quality of five detached dwellings, two townhouses, six apartment units, two mobile homes, one school and one hospital have been monitored. The pollutants monitored were CO, NO, NO2, SO2, O3, CH4, CO2 and total hydrocarbons. Reports results and describes a mathematical model developed to predict indoor concentrations of these pollutants. Briefly discusses the effect of energy conserving measures on indoor air pollution.
Describes a model for calculating air flow in mechanically ventilated high-rise building. Gives simplifying assumptions of model and basic equations of flow for the network of air paths. The second part of the paper gives an example of the calculation for a seventeen-storey apartment building.
Discusses flow of air between two rooms through an open door. Considers 6 cases with and without mechanical ventilation and with a temperature difference between the two rooms. Gives examples of the calculation of air flow. Recommends that for hospitals where the transfer of bacteria should be avoided, doors should be kept shut as much as possible and that it is not economically justifiable to choose such a high ventilation rate that no undesirable back flow occurs with the doors open.
Encore-Canada is a Fortran IV computer program which performs a dynamic simulation of energy use on an hourly basis using weather data. The program includes the calculation of air infiltration and solar effects. This report describes the program structure, data preparation, output and procedures for running the program. Gives examples of program applied to a house giving floorplan of the house, input data and program output.
Gives a brief guide to the computer program ZSTEP, which is a program for simultaneous calculation of the thermal performance of up to ten zones in a building. Outlines the structure and operation of the program and describes the type of input needed and the output produced. Discusses applications of the program and planned developments. An appendix gives data preparation sheets.
Treats drawbacks of current methods used in East Germany of calculating vapour barriers used to protect building elements from condensation. Notes building materials for which moisture absorbed in winter is sufficient to cause condensation damage before it has diffused in summer. Develops method based on calculation model of determining direct relation between any period of condensation and requisite vapour barriers. In addition amount of wateraccumulated during condensation period can also be determined.
Presents a long term calculation method for indoor air temperature and moisture variation related to the water vapour condensation problem in a detached residence. In this method, the multi-room infiltration calculation is developed. Furthermore the effect of sorption and description of a room, which is evaluated by means of a short term experiment, is introduced.
Describes method for calculating the adventitious ventilation of a building using information from a pressurization test. The method requires a knowledge of the surface pressures on a building, calculated from wind speed and direction, the inside-outside temperature difference, and the distribution and characteristics of openings in the building shell. Applies formulae to threebuildings and finds a great dependence of infiltration on wind direction. Discusses the effect of wind and stack effect, separately and combined.
Discusses standards and guidelines used for calculating the heat demand over a heating season. Notes inadequacy of current methods, in particular the inadequate account taken of certain environmental conditions and of particular window constructions. Proposes improved sizing procedure to take into account heat loss due to infiltrating air. Discusses simplifying assumptions. Gives expressions for critical heat output and for the quantity of air infiltrating a room.
Proposes a method of linking pressurization measurements in buildings with infiltration rates. The method is based on a simple theoretical model. Gives details of whole house pressurization tests and tracer gas measurements of ventilation rate (using N2O) in fifteen houses. Gives details of the theoretical model and compares field measurements with model predictions. Finds good agreement and concludes model may be used to estimate air change rates using leakage data. Finds surface pressure coefficients for typical house shapes and notes a dearth of data of this type.