Presents a survey of tracer gas techniques for measuring air infiltration and includes a theoretical derivation of the equations, a description of each method, and a short description of the experimental procedure. Derives a qualitative error analysis which concentrates on mixing problems and uses it to compare the strengths and weaknesses of each method.< Derives the theory of multi-chamber infiltration measurements in situations involving many interconnected spaces (network type models).
Presents a method of analysis to separately quantify the amounts of heat loss due to transmission and to air infiltration. The analysis is based on daily gas and electricity readings for a flat. Discusses three models for calculating heat losses; the regression model, the static thermal model andthe dynamic thermal model. Only the static and dynamic models have the ability to predict some of the individual terms in the heat balance equation.< Concludes that all three models may be used for a first estimate of the total amount of energy consumption.
Discusses five different models for predicting air infiltration. Presents a new model developed at the Institute of Gas Technology. The model is based on the results of tests to obtain the contribution of the existence of a chimney, and furnace operation, to house air infiltration. Reports verification of model by simulating results from 23 test homes. Concludes that model simulates with reasonable accuracy the measured values for a single-storey home equipped with an oil-fired central furnace.
Presents examples of the use of a generalized model of air infiltration, developed earlier, to estimate the air infiltration characteristics of two test homes using data for the structures, weather and furnace installation. One of these is a single-storey home with basement of wood- frame construction, equipped with an oil-fired central heating furnace.
Describes computer program used for calculating heating and cooling loads on buildings. Discusses current state of heating and cooling load techniques and various unique features of NBSLD. Gives summary of various subroutines of NBSLD including an algorithm for calculating air infiltration Gives complete Fortran listing of NBSLD and data preparation forms.
Reports study of the natural ventilation in elementary tall office buildings has been made using the analogy between the flow of air through a building and the passage of an electric current through a circuit of resistances. The prime motive forces, those of wind pressure and stack effect are detailed, and experimental values for these and other parameters related to the building are outlined.
Describes a model for calculating the energy losses caused by ventilation and uncontrolled leakage of air in buildings. Discusses leakage characteristics of building envelope and duct system, the effects of wind and stack effects. Gives general picture of the calculation model.
Describes in detail a multi-cell model for predicting ventilating airflows. Gives equations for flow through cracks, wind and stack effect. States that comparisons between prediction and measurements indicate that the method is capable of giving relatively high accuracy for a wide range of ventilation conditions. Discusses advantages and disadvantages of multi-cell and single-cell methods. Argues that multi-cell approach is potentially more accurate and more useful.
Users' manual and documentation connected with computer program ENCORE. Program is based on weighting factor method. Provides general description of input data, building location and shape, heating system and building use.Describes in more detail standard output, error messages and warnings. Provides examples concerning warm-air heated house and house with electric space heating system. supplied detailed documentation of subroutines.
Describes instrumentation used to measure air flow and pressure. Presents laws for turbulent and laminar flow in a wind tunnel. Reports model experiments to investigate the flow behind a solid screen and control experiments to check the model laws. Discusses measurements made at full scale on a school and on a model of the school. Describes experiments on the shelter behind houses and the dispersal of smoke from a chimney.