Reports tests made to determine the air leakage characteristics of various types of walls. Describes apparatus and method and gives results of tests on brick, wood frame, stucco and brick and tile walls, with and without plaster, paint and caulking. Finds that air leakage characteristics alter with the age of the wall, that paint alone did not greatly reduce the leakage of the brick wall, but that plaster was very effective. Also gives data for leakage between plaster or stucco and wood frame.
Describes apparatus and method of testing wood windows. Each window was tested four times, twice closed but not locked, locked and locked with the sash perimeter sealed. Tests were repeated six months later and again after weatherstripping. gives test results and discusses them. Also reports tests on the air leakage of window frames.
Describes test apparatus and procedure and gives results of air leakage tests on various types of wood frame construction. Also gives the results of tests on the effect of adding sheathing paper, plaster, wall paper and paint. Concludes that air leakage through a frame wall construction containing building paper or plaster properly applied is negligibly small. Single-surfaced walls showed considerable leakage.
Reviews sources of window air leakage information in the current ASHRAE guide and data book, and standards for air leakage values recommended by industry. Gives results of air leakage tests made on thirty-nine residential windows. Concludes that test results forming the basis of the present guide and data book table are still valid for modern windows of the types covered. Of the new types, sliding residential-type windows have similar characteristics to wood double-hung windows covered by the guide.
Suggests the use of sound waves to locate openings in buildings that allow air infiltration. Reports results of an experimental program, including laboratory tests of a specially constructed partition and field tests on eight buildings.
Describes experimental techniques used in the low-speed wind tunnels at the Building Research Station when studying air flow around buildings and pressure distribution over their surfaces. Includes flow visualisation both in the stream and in boundary layers over surfaces, velocity measurements around small-scale models, and methods of building models containing pressure tappings. Gives names of suppliers and details of some instruments and equipments. Describes in an appendix how a simply constructed heated-sphere anemometer is made.
Describes automated instrumentation using sulphur hexafluoride as a tracer gas in residential housing to determine rates of air infiltration in houses. Discusses in detail the principles of operation, necessary calibration procedures and early field data. Concentration levels of SF6 are maintained at the partsper million level in the buildings and are measured by sensitive electron capture detectors in conJunction with a gas chromatograph.
Discusses reasons for ventilating buildings and theories of ventilation. Summarises American and British recommendations for fresh air supplies. Concludes that the necessary volume of fresh air per person per minute varies considerably with thecircumstances but these volumes can be determined from the fundamental considerations.
Describes apparatus and test procedure of tests made to show the effect of caulking the crack between the brick wall and window frame and the effect of applying storm sash to the window on air leakage rates. Concludes that the crack between the brick wall and window frame is a very important factor in calculating the infiltration into a room, but that this source of leakage can be practically eliminated by caulking the crack.