Air leakage measurements in a mobile home.

Reports air leakage measurements made in a mobile home using sulphur hexafluoride as a tracer gas. The home was located in an environmental chamber where it was possible to measure and control the temperature outside the home. The effect on infiltration rate of inside-outside temperature difference, simulated wind, installation of storm windows, opening of doors and operation of the furnace for was investigated. Also reports pressurization measurements which showed that the installation of storm windows had little effect on air leakage.

Energy conservation and indoor air pollution

Presents model of indoor pollution that assumes a linear relation between indoor pollutant levels and the air change rate. Discusses effect of heating system and cooking on pollutant levels and ventilation rate. The model predicts that when air change rate is reduced 4-fold, heating systems pollutant contributions can still rise up to 3-fold despite the saving in energy from reducing ventilation. Suggests precautions are necessary when tightening building envelope. Recommends that pilot lights be eliminated and effective kitchen ventilation systems installed.

Human disease from radon exposures. the impact of energy conservation in residential buildings.

Gives general discussion of sources of radon gas and its daughter products. Reviews measurements made of radon concentrations in air. Outlines control strategies for limiting radon in buildings.

Heating system-generated indoor air pollution

Heating systems may emit pollutants into living spaces of buildings. Presents model for estimating exposure to pollutants allowing for variation of air change rate and inside-outside temperature differences. Examines the effect of energy conservation measures. Concludes that if ventilation alone is reduced the pollutant concentrations will rise but if reduced ventilation is balanced by increased insulation then pollutant contributions will remain unchanged. The analysis applies only to pollutants generated by the heating system.

The relative radioactivity of building materials

Reports measurements of concentrations of thorium, potassium, uranium radium, and relative radioactivity of building materials used in the United Kingdom. Gives table of results. Examines in particular calcined gypsum prepared as a by product in the manufacture of superphosphate fertilizers. Discusses the relationship between radium concentration and gamma-ray dose rate

Measurement of environmental gamma radiation in Norwegian houses

Reports results of measurements of the environmental radiation inside Norwegian houses. Three types of measuring equipment were used: a scintillation rate meter specially designed for low intensity measurement, a geiger counter with a rate meter, and an ionisation chamber. The average doserate in air due to environmental radiation was found to be 87 mrad/year insidehouses with outer walls of wood. 115 mrad/year for buildings with outer walls of concrete and 129 mrad/year for buildings with outer walls of brick.

Outdoor sources of indoor air pollution.

Points out that conservation measures such as storm windows which seal a building protect occupants from outdoor air pollution but amplify effects of pollution generated indoors. Considers which effect is greater. Develops a model relating indoor air pollutant concentrations to outdoor concentrations and to v, the air exchange rate, which is consistent with reported behaviour of common pollutants. Model predicts that indoor concentrations follow outdoor concentrations but maxima and minima lag behind, and are not as pronounced as theiroutdoor counterparts.

Environmental radiation background variations between residences.

Reports environmental background radiation exposure measurements made in approximately 100 residences in the vicinity of Livermore, California showing variations in annual exposure from 52 to 130 mr. Measurements were made with CaF2:Dy (tld-200) dosimeters at quarterly intervals for a period of 1 year. Dwellings were typically wood-frame structures with stucco exteriors. Interior exposure rates were, on average, about 25% lower than those outdoors.

Studies on the natural background radiation in Italy.

Reports study of the exposure rate due to the gamma-ray natural background in some representative areas of Italy using a portable high-pressure ionization chamber. In some areas spectrometric measurements were made to distinguish between contributions to the total from cosmic rays and from natural radioactive series. The measurement areas were chosen to be representative of the main geological formations.

Preliminary studies of the effects of sealants on radon emanation from concrete.

Reports study of emanation of radon from concrete blocks enriched with uranium ore, placed in an airtight enclosure. The radioactivity of air samples was determined using a high resolution silicon diode detector system.