Basic material for the instruction of occupants of homes. How, when and where to use your windows.

Airtightness measurements were carried out in ten typical Dutch dwelling complexes. In each complex four homes were measured. The IMG calculation model was used to calculate expected ventilation for these dwellings. Results of a survey of 1500 occupants on use of ventilation are given. The ventilating behaviour in 610 homes was studied in greater detail. 210 of these had some form of mechanical ventilation. Ventilation requirements are given for individual rooms.

Contaminant reduction: general vs. local exhaust ventilation.

Local exhaust ventilation is a more effective system for reducing contaminants in the workplace.

Ventilation strategies for crawl-spaces, attics.

In this paper ventilation of attics and crawl-spaces is investigated theoretically. Ventilation rates and temperatures of the spaces are calculated by means of flow balance procedures. Flow characteristics of ventilators and openings for attics and crawl-spaces are far from well known, so a laboratory investigation on pressure drops across such devices was undertaken and reported in the paper. As convective flows from the heated part of a houseinto a colder, ventilated space can create moisture problems this situation has been investigated extensively.

Exploration of ventilation strategies in domestic housing. Theory and experimental results.

The performance of whole-house mechanical ventilation systems was explored in an full-scale indoor test house (volume 176 m³ ) . A range of parameters were monitored: * The pressure distribution * The inflow of outdoor air to each room, the mean age of air in each room and the air-exchange effectiveness * The spread of a 'contaminant' released respectively in the kitchen and in the bedroom. The tests were undertaken both with the internal doors closed and with the internal doors open. Both mechanical extract system and balanced (combined) systems were tested.

Design for ventilation.

Ventilation can be advantageous as opposed to adventitious and, with careful building design, can eliminate the need for air conditioning in summer. This paper discusses the general principles of design for ventilation, inparticular the removal of excess heat, and presents two examples of buildings designed to eliminate air conditioning. One is a deep plan office block, the other an exhibition hall. In both cases ventilation models featured strongly in the design.

Air quality and energy conservation by different ventilation strategies.

The increasing awareness that indoor air quality aspects may restrict energy conservation by infiltration and ventilation measures has led to extensive investigations of different ventilation strategies. Aiming at a reduction o f energy consumption air infiltration and ventilation rates have t o be minimized. But in order to maintain healthy, safe and comfortable conditions for the inhabitants and to avoid damages to the building fabric the outdoor a i r supply should not remain under minimum ventilation rates.

A passive ventilation system under trial in UK homes.

A passive ventilation system has been installed in four new houses: it comprises simple ducts which lead up from the kitchen and bathroom to outside near the house ridge and utilise the wind and the temperature difference between inside and outside (the stack effect) as driving forces. During occupation the system provided a consistent background ventilation rate: the flows dropped only when it was warm and calm outside (when other ventilation measures might be taken by the occupier); when it was very cold and windy outside the system did not over extract but appeared to self-throttle.

Ventilation experiments in unoccupied testhouses. Luftungstechnische untersuchungen in unbewohnten versuchshausern.

Various ventilation systems have been examined in unoccupied test houses under natural climatic conditions. Two identical test houses were used to enable comparison of the effects of different ventilating systems on the air change rate and heat consumption. The systems examined were natural ventilating devices placed in the window area and centralized and decentralized mechanical systems. With the decentralized systems, draughts were generally unavoidable. Heat recovery from exhaust air at an air change rate of 1.0 h-1 gave a measured heat consumption saving of about 16 per cent.

Conclusion and first evaluation of results. Zusammenfassung und erste bewertung der ergebnisse.

Summarizes the main results of the seminar: 1 interdisciplinary collaboration is necessary, 2 a direct and intensive publicity campaign is needed to influence occupant behaviour, 3 an air change rate between 0.5 and 1 per hour (in relation to the total volume of the living quarters) should comply with normal requirements, 4 a method for measuring the airtightness or air change rate for individual buildings should be developed ready for application, 5 mechanical ventilation offers the best solution, 6 there exists a need for simple ventilation fittings which can be installed in existing buil

The Worms demonstration project. Comparative investigation of air infiltration and ventilation systems in existing buildings. Demonstrationsvorhaben Worms. Vergleichende untersuchung verschiedener luftungssysteme in ausgefuhrten wohnbauten.

Three blocks of flats on the outskirts of Worms were equipped with a mechanical ventilation system with heat recovery, a mechanical ventilation system, and stack assisted natural ventilation, respectively. Building description, air quality, air change rate, draught protection, noise level, energy balance, individual heating costs, efficiency calculations, planning and installation experience and user behaviour were studied. Systems with heat recovery were found to permit a 15-20 per cent reduction of heat consumption. User behaviour in opening windows is dependent on habit.