Natural ventilation - conditions and means for its improvement in existing buildings.

In new buildings, the requirements for indoor air quality and energy efficiency cannot be met with natural ventilation. In renovations of existing buildings it is, however, often difficult or uneconomic to install a mechanical system. What is often forgotten is that the conditions for natural ventilation will have changed, even if no alterations are made to the ventilation system.

Ventilation in existing buildings. Part Two: An approach to natural-like mechanical ventilation of existing buildings.

Describes a new ventilation strategy for retrofitted buildings. The system consists of two units including heat recovery, fan, filter, etc, which are installed in the window openings. They are operated in opposite directions which are periodically reversed. When desired, the unit is stopped and used as an airing panel. In laboratory tests the specified values were achieved. The heat recovery proved so efficient that no air heating was needed even at the lowest temperatures. Some noise and freezing problems were reported.

Ventilation in existing buildings. Part One. Comparative studies of various ventilation systems in old renovated buildings.

Some of the problems for designing ventilation systems for retrofitted buildings are presented. Measurements were taken in two public buildings in Helsinki with three ventilation systems of different types. In these two buildings only a balanced mechanical ventilation system seemed to fulfill therequirements for a satisfactory and healthy indoor environment.

Effective ventilating systems. Characterization and design implications.

Displacement flow has been found to be the best flow principle for ventilation, with ventilating air being supplied to the occupied zone. The design procedure should, amongst other things, contain an analysis of contaminant source in order to design the ventilating system to create the most favourable flow pattern for the contaminants. This paper deals with design principles and problems related to displacement ventilating systems.

The superinsulation (SI) project.

A research project by the Energy Division is underway to develop and demonstrate appropriate construction techniques for superinsulation (SI) residential construction in Minnesota. Techniques applicable for both new and retrofit SI constructi

Energy efficient renovation of houses.

Suggests draughtproofing and installation of controllable ventilation when retrofitting older residential buildings in the UK. Use of extract fans to remove moisture at source is recommended. The energy savings obtained in four case studies are presented.

Solutions for improving mechanical ventilation in new dwellings. Solutions pour ameliorer la ventilation mecanique dans les logements neufs.

States that although controlled mechanical ventilation is becoming more widespread, the installations and their application are capable of improvement. Illustrates diagrammatically and explains methods of improving the components, their installation and operation. Considers ways of improving the air tightness of the buildings. Concludes by describing methods of simulating the performance of controlled mechanical systems, which facilitates the evaluation of measures aimed at improving their operation.

Air flow in dwelling houses from an energy point of view (Polish experience).

Reviews ways of reducing energy loss due to infiltration while maintaining air quality. Results from existing houses are presented. Describes a method to reduce the average air flow coefficients of the envelope to minimum required values and to determine the heat criteria of various ventilation systems.

Air flow windows in hot climates.

This paper discusses the advantages of utilizing air flow windows in hot climates and the technical and functional aspects of engineering air flow window systems into the buildings. Air flow windows offer several advantages to building owners such as maximum space comfort, more usable floor space, energy and monetary savings and possibilities to use daylighting in the optimal way. Additionally air flow windows seem to be easily combined with all commonly used air conditioning systems.

The ventilated facade.

This paper reports on recent developments and future activities in the Netherlands on ventilated facades. The Billiton International Metals building in the Hague is an early example of this. The research for this specific building has formed the foundation for further research on ventilated facades. A literature search has been carried out, and an extensive measurement programme in combination with a computerized model has been announced.