This paper describes a thermal comfort survey of people living in courtyard housing. The study took place in the Iranian city of Ilam, which experiences a hot, dry climate. The survey compared the thermal comfort conditions of people outside using the courtyard housing, and was conducting during the hot summer season. Over 570 subjects responded to thermal comfort questionnaires. At the same time physical measurements were taken of such parameters as dry bulb air temperature, relative humidity and air velocity.
This paper examines the conditions of a relatively large courtyard (45 by 10 meters), enclosed by a one-story building, located in the Negev Lowlands. The region is characterised by hot, dry summer days, and wide temperature and relative humidity fluctuations. The courtyard was monitored under extreme conditions typical of the hot spells, common during transition periods, during which even night minima are sometimes well above the comfort zone.
The paper traces the paradigm changes for house design in warm-humid climates, from the preference for traditional elevated, lightweight, ventilated buildings, through the advocacy for heavy construction, to the present conclusion that both can be equally good. The extension of selection criteria is suggested, to include psychological factors, which seem to favour the lightweight, cross-ventilated buildings. The success of these depends on the cooling effect of air movement, hence an attempt is made to quantify this effect.
Passive Downdraught Cooling is a technique which will potentially become a substitute for conventional air-conditioning in Southern Europe and the hot dry regions of the world. As well as providing substantial energy savings, the technique avoids the need for ductwork, fans and suspended ceilings, and reduces the need for refrigerant based cooling. However, this approach has architectural implications which extends the vocabulary of 'passive design'.
Examines the difficulties of ensuring occupant comfort in challenging climates and less developed areas of the world such as the Galapagos. Temperatures can reach 30 deg C, but rarely go lower than 18 deg C, so no heating is needed. Describes the offices of the Galapagos National Park Service, built largely with low thermal mass and no insulation. Air conditioning and air movement depend on a filter-down effect from a single office.
States that when used with ice storage systems, cold air distribution systems are popular since they require less operating and capital costs. Stresses the importance of a consideration of occupant comfort. The study looked at air circulation and temperature distribution in a room, considering different orientation, velocities and sizes of jet for a given vertical location of air inlet and outlet on opposing walls. A control volume method was used to solve the Navier-Stokes equations and an energy equation in two dimensional rectangular Cartesian coordinates.
In Switzerland, even if the average daily temperature rarely exceeds 25º C during the summer months, more and more cooling plants are being installed in administrative buildings. The CUEPE participated as experts in some realisations that showed (simulat
Looks at two residential flats in a high-rise residential building in Hong Kong using HBT2 detailed building heat transfer simulation software. It analyses the influence of the thermal insulation layer in the outside walls on the yearly cooling load and maximum cooling demand. Tall residential buildings in Hong Kong do not usually incorporate thermal insulation. The simulation predicted a maximum decrease in annual cooling load of up to 6.8%, using a 5 cm thick thermal insulation coating which faced into the flat.
Nightsky, an innovative night roof spray storage cooling system, provides chilled water to in-slab tubing and fan coils. Passive cooling delivery from the slab cools the building in parallel with the 'active' chilled-water fan coils. Delivering a significant fraction of the building's cooling requirements via the floor slab allows that size of the forced-air delivery system to be reduced. NightSky is most appropriate for large, low-rise buildings that have low-slope roof areas.