Air conditioning and mortality in hot weather.

The National Death Index was used to monitor a cohort of 72,740 persons for whom information on household air conditioning was available, between April 1980 and December 1985. 2275 deaths occurred. The study attempted to establish whether people in households with air conditioning experienced lower death rates during hot weather. Both central and room air conditioning were considered.

Hyperpyrexia due to air conditioning failure in a nursing home.

States that heat stress decreases the chance of survival for the elderly and sick. Cites examples of an eightfold increase in expected mortality for persons over 85 years and threefold for those 50-54 years old. Suggests that chronic degenerative disease in the elderly, certain therapeutic drugs and lack of acclimatization are additional risk factors.

Heat wave mortality in nursing homes.

In order to determine the impact of heat waves on nursing home occupants and the efficacy of air conditioning in reducing them, a study investigated patterns of mortality in eleven air conditioned and nine un-air conditioned nursing homes in New York City. On the basis of the findings, recommends that nursing homes and other institutions for the elderly located in climates like that of New York City be required to provide air conditioning.

Design strategies for hybrid ventilation.

An innovative and potentially energy efficient approach to ventilating and cooling buildings is represented by hybrid ventilation. Discusses the application of hybrid ventilation strategies to building design in the USA.

Natural cooling of buildings.

Natural cooling has an important role in decreasing fuel consumption in buildings. The design is mainly directed at reducing heat gains. The following elements are part of the passive precautions taken: window direction, type of fenestration, window surface areas, outside wall construction, inside thermal mass, thermal insulation, shades, and building configuration. The evaluation of these parameters and of natural cooling's feasibility is done by computer simulation. The article describes a computer program devised for this purpose.

A method of assessing the utilisation of outdoor air for summer cooling in warm/humid climate.

The study developed a method to assess the capability of outdoor air utilized for summer cooling in urban apartments in the hot, humid climate of Taiwan (average yearly temperature 23 Deg C, average humidity 85%). The assessment method is approached using three aspects of identifying the maximum comfort room temperature, estimating the cooling capacity of applied outdoor air volume, and calculating the required outdoor air and pre-cooled outdoor air volumes for cooling through cooling load calculations.

Envelope and internal space performance of office buildings in a hot climate.

States that buildings in Saudi Arabia are often constructed without attention to the occupant discomfort caused by hot summer temperatures. Single-zone thermostats tend to limit comfort to the sun-side of office buildings, and there is also a possibility of asymmetrical radiation. Describes a pilot study conducted in a room in which airflows and temperatures were measured and then simulated using CFD techniques. Several factors were identified which contributed to the problem.

"I always turn it on super": user decisions about when and how to operate room air conditioners.

An investigation was carried out in a multi-family building in New Jersey, USA of eight apartments, including resident interviews about air conditioner usage. Energy consumption for cooling varied widely across similar apartments, due to occupants' diverse beliefs about machine operation and economic considerations. 75% of residents did not use the thermostats, preferring to switch the system on and off according to comfort needs. Concludes that the problem is not lack of user education, but rather poor user-friendliness of air conditioner controls.

Evaporative cooling and other home factors and lower respiratory tract illness during the first year of life.

The authors used data from the Children's Respiratory Study in Tuscon, Arizona, USA to study the relationship between home environment and lower respiratory tract illness in infants. Health babies were recruited at birth. In the first year, 196 babies (21%) had wheezing LRI and 60 (6%) had non-wheezing LRI. Wheezing risk was higher for babies with evaporative home cooling (24%). Non-wheezing LRI linked with parents' rating of neighbourhood dust levels. There was no relation to type of home heating, cooking fuel, or pets.

Study of solar walls - validating a simulation model.

Presents a comparative study of four different types of solar wall, with the results obtained using a numerical simulation model. The model was validated using an experimental study of a composite solar wall. The first section of the article covers the presentation of four different types of solar wall, the Trombe wall, the insulated Trombe wall, the non-ventilated solar wall and the composite wall, then describes the experimental installations which enable the authors to obtain the measurements and the thermal study of the composite solar wall.

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