This is the first of a series of four papers that describe a 3-year EU-funded research project into the application of passive downdraught evaporative cooling to nondomestic buildings. In this paper various evaporative cooling techniques are reviewed. By spraying fine droplets of water at the top of atria, a downdraught of air cooled by evaporation can be produced. Such direct evaporative cooling using an evaporation tower appears to be a suitable approach for partly displacing the need for air-conditioning in hot, dry climates.
The transient performance of displacement ventilation has rarely been studied though many researches have been done on the area.. Due to the importance to the analysis and design of an air conditioning system, the unsteady histories of displacement ventilation of a typical office in Hong Kong is simulated numerically with a validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Solar heat gain is introduced from the glass wall. Turbulent flow with thermal convection is considered. As a preliminary research, the heat capacity of the walls, occupants and machines is ignored.
As heat exchanges through building envelopes and undesirable internal gains have been reduced in the last years due to energy conservation efforts, the importance of the energy needed to heat, cool and move outdoor air for ventilation has increased in relative tem1s. This study, developed within the European project TIP-VENT (JOULE) aims to study the impact of ventilation air flow rates upon the energy needs of typical buildings. Five real buildings were selected as case-studies: A hotel, an auditorium, an office building, a single-family residence and an apartment building.