Indoor air pollution and housing technology.

Reviews the scientific literature on indoor air pollution. Low-pollution design and construction techniques employed in the Sunnyhill Low-Pollution Research Centre are outlined in detail and suggestions are made on their applicability to new and existing housing in Canada. The study recommends a four-fold approach to the indoor air pollution problem by government and the building industry: A) short-circuit major potential hazards, B) deal with low-pollution housing needs, C) spread and apply present knowledge, and D)foster more research and discussions on regulation.

Air quality with use of make-up air.

Direct gas fired heated make-up air is used in industrial buildings to replace exhausted air and to achieve a comfortable temperature while avoiding draughts. This study presents the results of an investigation of the pollution from such a system under different conditions.

Indoor air and human health

Covers indoor pollutant levels and their health effects in humans and animals for five principal classes of pollutant: radon, microorganisms, passive cigarette smoke, combustion products, and organic compounds. They are examined from viewpoints such as measurement and source characterisation habitat studies, health effects, risk analysis, and future needs.

Indoor air pollution due to emissions from unvented gas-fired space heaters.

Operation of an unvented combustion appliance indoors can elevate pollutant concentrations. Under laboratory conditions, oxygen consumption rates and pollutant emission rates of CO, CO2, NO, NO2, HCHO and submicron suspended particles emitted

Air infiltration and heat exchange.

Air-to-air heat exchangers were evaluated as a method of maintaining indoor contaminant concentration levels below acceptable levels. A mathematical simulation of air infiltration and indoor contaminant generation was used todetermine the distribution of contaminant concentrations at various average intervals including hourly and yearly. Both spot generation such as from unvented combustion, and diffuse sources, such as from materials, were considered for four contaminants, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and formaldehyde.

Tests of air quality in three London (Ontario) homes.

Tests were performed in 3 homes for 1) carbon monoxide, 2) nitrogen dioxide, 3) nitric oxide, 4) total hydrocarbons and 5) formaldehyde. Total particulate matter, by a numerical counting method, was also measured in Homes 1 and 2.


Indoor air pollution in the Netherlands.

Reports results of studies of concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, respirable suspended particulate matter and volatile hydrocarbons in houses in the Netherlands. Carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide were studied in about 300 homes in Arnhem and Enschede in October-December 1980. Respirable suspended particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide and volatile hydrocarbons were measured in 175 houses in Ede in winter 1981-82. Indoor air pollution was often much higher than the common outdoor levels. In several houses existing or proposed standards for ambient air were exceeded.

Indoor carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide pollution in the Netherlands.

Describes the influence of gas geisers on carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide production in 254 houses in the Netherlands. It was shown that burner type and maintenance system were the main factors influencing the carbon monoxide levels in the flue gases. The nitrogen dioxide concentration in the kitchen was greatly influenced by the presence of a flue for the geiser and by use of a cooker hood. Associations were also found with type of space heating, use of shower and socioeconomic status of the occupants.

Regulatory aspects of indoor air quality - a UK view.

Specific indoor air quality issues that have arisen in the UK in recent years have involved asbestos, formaldehyde, pesticide residues, radon and combustion products. Different measures have been taken with regard to each of these substances. In general, an education approach has been adopted, although national standards, industry self-regulation and some regulatory measures have been used. In the UK, control of ill defined, distributed or non stationary indoor air pollutants such as body odour, tobacco smoke and water vapour, is considered to be best achieved by suitable ventilation.

Indoor carbon monoxide pollution in the Netherlands.

Most houses in the Netherlands are equipped with gas-fired heaters and cooking appliances, since large amounts of natural gas are available. Carbon monoxide poisonings occasionally occur due to the use of instantaneous water heaters (geisers) that are gas fired. An investigation was carried out to establish the carbon monoxide production potential of geisers under normal conditions of use. The study involved 254 houses: the results indicated that 17% of the geisers produced a carbon monoxide level of more than 50 microL/L in thekitchens where they were located, after 15 min of operation.