The Use of Impulse Ventilation to Control Pollution in Underground Car Parks

The ventilation of underground car parks is important to avoid health problems associated with the inhalation of combustion products released by car engines, in particular carbon monoxide CO (which is commonly used as the indicator of car park indoor air quality). In recent years, a new mechanical ventilation system has appeared, based on the use of axial ventilators (jet fans) suspended under the car park ceiling. In this paper the flow generated by jet fans and their effects on pollutants are studied.

Car park ventilation system : performance evaluation

Investigations in six car parks were carried out. Measurements of carbon monoxide levels were made during the peak hours to compare the performance of the different types of ventilation systems : the performance is better with a combined supply and exhaust system than the exhaust only system though more energy is consumed.

Ventilation for enclosed parking garages.


Vehicular tunnel ventilation design and application of CFD.

Ventilation requirements for vehicular tunnels in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region are discussed. For vehicle emissions, carbon monoxide is considered to be important for vehicles running on petrol engines, and suspended particulates for diesel engines. Other environmental control parameters are temperature, air speed and air pressure. Codes, regulations and design guides for ventilation systems are reviewed. Different ventilation designs adopted in local vehicular tunnels are described.

Computational investigation of ventilation strategies to reduce exposure to NO2 and CO from gas cooking.

Gas cooking in the home can release high levels of nitrogen dioxide (N02) and carbon monoxide (CO). This study investigated the effect of various ventilation strategies to reduce personal exposure to these pollutants. It considered the effectiveness of windows, a kitchen extract fan and trickle ventilators for different dwellings, occupant behaviour, environmental conditions etc. Strategy selection was based on the need to minimise both personal exposure and energy loss. These strategies were simulated using BRE's BREEZE multi-zonal computer code.

Air quality measurement in a model kitchen using gas and electric stoves.

Epidemiological studies suggest that cooking with gas leads to an increase of air pollutants and may enhance symptoms of respiratory diseases. However, little experimental data are available concerning the emission of pollutants due to different cooking processes. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of cooking under standardized conditions on the indoor air quality. A model kitchen was built and three different gas stoves and one electric stove were included in the study. Two different menus were prepared with different settings of the ventilation rate of the exhaust.

Indoor air quality in primary schools.

The objective of this paper was to verify that problem of indoor air pollution is present in primary school in Yugoslavia. Indoor air pollutant levels of sulfur-dioxide, soot, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and formaldehyde, and air-microflora was determined in different places of school environment. The average indoor level of sulphur dioxide and soot in primary schools were comparatively high. Determined average levels of carbon monoxide were from 13 .2 - 31. 8 mg/m3, levels of nitrogen dioxide were 20 - 62 μg/m3 and levels of formaldehyde: 0.01 - 0.83 μg/m3.

Carbon monoxide exposure from a vehicle in a garage.