Calculating the flow processes in multi-storey buildings. Berechnung der stromungsvorgange in mehrgeschossigen gebauden.

The method to calculate flow processes in multi-storey buildings having uniform storey arrangement(residential and office buildings) can be simplified to an extent enabling calculation by hand. Nomographs are given to calculate flows in sectional and central corridor buildings. The air flow rates depending on the action of wind, buoyancy and exhaust air plant operation can be derived from these nomographs for different combinations of flow resistances of the buildings. The latter factors may be included in thecalculation either individually or in any combination.

Air quality and ventilation. Raumluftqualitat und luftung.

Air pollutants caused by man were measured in a test chamber. Variables were number of persons and their activities and the rate of the air change. During test sessions of two hours the temperature, the relative humidity, the carbon-dioxide and intensity of odors were measured. There was a significant correlation between the odor intensities and the concentrations of carbon-dioxide independent of the number of persons and the air change rate.At air change rates of 12-15m**3 per person and per hour, the carbon-dioxide concentration was not higher then 0.

Investigation of the burden on people from formaldehyde in schools and living rooms. Untersuchungen uber die Belastung des Menschen durch Formaldehyd in Schul- und Wohnraumen.

Discusses in general terms the problem with formaldehyde in schools in Cologne, reported by Deimel (abstract no.803). Considers problems of ventilating school buildings to reduce the concentration of formaldehyde. Discusses toxicity of formaldehyde and reports a survey of 37 children from one of the Cologne schools. Measurements of formic acid and formaldehyde in the childrens' urine were made after 7 hours of exposure and after 17 exposure-free hours. Concludes that current standards should be adhered to.

Experience of the concentration of formaldehyde in indoor air in newly built schools. Erfahrungen uber Formaldehyd-Raumluftkonzentrationen in Schulneubauten.

Reports measurements of formaldehyde in four newly-built schools. In one school, one year after opening during the hot summer of 1976, concentrations of formaldehyde between 0.3 and 0.9ppm were measured. In another school the average concentration for almost all rooms was over the maximum for working places of 1ppm. The cause was emanation from ceiling and furniture and concentration depended on humidity, temperature and ventilation rate.

Air quality in living and working places. Luftqualitat in Wohn -und Arbeitsraumen.

Air quality inside buildings depends on the contamination of outside air as well as on the air pollution inside the room. The human being contaminates the air through carbon dioxide, odours, vapours and particulates. The most important sources of pollution are tobacco smoke, consumer materials (organic solvents), building materials and furniture fittings (formaldehyde) and the use of gas for cooking and heating (nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide).< Discusses these pollutants and reported levels of pollution in Swiss buildings. Discusses methods of removing pollutants from the air.

Study of the internal climate in selected rooms of a Berlin school. Studie uber raumklimatische Umbegungsbedingungen in ausgewahlten Raumen eines Berliner Mittelstufenzentrums.

Reports findings of investigations carried out by West German Federal Ministry of Health in July 1978 into the internal climate in the one third of the rooms in a representative West Berlin school which are located in the building core. These rooms have mechanical ventilation and artificial lighting. Gives results of measurements of room temperatures, air change rates, (measured using N2O as a tracer gas), concentration of carbon dioxide and acoustic performance of the rooms.

Reducing the requirements for ventilation heat through natural ventilation of buildings by use of air permeable porous outside walls. Verringerung des Luftungswarmebedarfs bei naturlicher Luftung von Gebauden durch Verwendung luftdurchlassigkeit poroser A

Calculations show that natural ventilation exploiting wind and specific gravity differences may reduce the need for ventilation heat. This is not done as usual by ventilation through open doors and windows but through fine porous air-permeable outside walls. The optimum thickness of the heat insulation layer is defined, giving maximum saving of total heating and ventilation energy.

Ventilation and ventilation heat load in multi-storey and high rise structures. Zur problematik der Durchluftung und der luftungsheizlast von vielgoschossigen Gebauden und Hochhausern.

Describes a model for calculating air flow in mechanically ventilated high-rise building. Gives simplifying assumptions of model and basic equations of flow for the network of air paths. The second part of the paper gives an example of the calculation for a seventeen-storey apartment building.

The diffusion of particulate and gaseous air pollution in a pellet plant. Ausbreitung von Staub -und gasformigen luftverunreinigungen in einer Pelletfabrik.

Air velocities, air temperatures and dust and fluoride concentrations were measured in a burning shop of a pellet plant. The results show that there is a clear relationship between the air velocities, air temperatures and airpollution concentrations. The air flow pattern consists of an air current which rises above the burning machine as a result of convection and escapes through roof grates. Air is supplied through facade grates. The transport of air and polluting substances, especially in the cross direction of the hallindicates the influence of the wind.