Wind pressure and strain measurements at the post office tower.

Presents some results not previously published of the full-scale loading project carried out at the post office tower, London. Autocorrelations and pressure spectra were determined for all the pressure transducers, and the variations of these around thestructure as well as vertically are discussed.

Movers and stayers: the resident's contribution to variation across houses in energy consumption for space heating

Proposes general method to identify contribution of resident-dependent effects to observed variability of energy consumption in similar houses. Method assumes that in addition to records of energy consumption over time, there is access to information about date of change of occupants. For data on TwinRivers, New Jersey, shows that the role of resident-dependent effects dominates the role of effects that depend on structural variations over which residents have no effective control.

Ventilation requirements

Discusses fresh air requirements and tolerable levels of contamination from various sources within a space. Explains the calculation of dilution rates. States that in summer the rates required will generally be higher than those derived from theinformation given because of the need to reduce temperatures in non-air-conditioned buildings and gives method for calculation of ventilation rate required.

Comparison of model/full-scale wind pressures on a high-rise building.

Reports results of surface wind pressure measurements made simultaneously at thirty-two points on a 57-storey office tower in Toronto. In addition to readings taken at half-second intervals during high winds, mean and root-mean square pressures were recorded for a five-minute interval once each hour, and pressure coefficients referred to the free stream dynamic pressure at 286 m were computed for comparision with wind tunneltest information.

A preliminary appraisal of wind loading concepts of the 1970 Canadian National Building Code.

Describes the philosophy and formulation of the simple and detailed procedures for wind loading of the Canadian National Building Code of 1970. Defines design pressure in terms of the exposure of the building, its response to gusts, the mean velocity pressure and the structural shape of the building. Compares predictions of dynamic drag response and cladding pressures with full scale measurements on several tall buildings. Concludes that the predictions of drag response and windward pressure are satisfactory. Discusses area requiring further definition.

Air exchange measurements in a high-rise office building.

Reports measurements of air change rates made in the tower of an eleven-storey building using sulphur hexafluoride as a tracer gas. Inside to outside pressure differences were also monitored as a function of temperature and wind speed. Gives expression for autumn and winter air change rate as a function of windspeed. Reports finding that wind direction and stack effect had little effect on the air change rate. In this building toilet exhausts and other weather independent mechanisms were more important than natural infiltration.

Air infiltration measurement and reduction techniques on electrically heated homes.

Reports two-year programme to evaluate the effect of air infiltration on the heating needs of 29 electrically heated homes. Air-change rates before and after retrofitting tominimize infiltration were measured by a pressure method and heat energy consumption and occupancy effects were monitored. Thirty similar homes were also tested for infiltration and retained as controls.< Describes the retrofit methods, their effect upon the induced air infiltration, the other data which are being collected, and the data analyses which are expected at the completion of the programme.

Principles of natural ventilation

Discusses the mechanisms which govern natural ventilation. These are wind speed, flow, characteristics of openings in buildings and pressures generated at building surfaces by wind and temperature difference. Gives formulae for simple cases. Outlines ways of determining natural ventilation rates. Gives brief account of the effect of turbulence and openings in one wall only.

Air tightness of whole buildings

States that aim of research project is to develop a method of testing entire buildings for air infiltration. Suggests apressure method using a powerful fan to pressurize or depressurize the house and measuring air flow through the fan and internal pressure to give a figure for air infiltration.

The repeatability and reproduceability of test results on windows and wall span elements and the expected results.

Discusses variations in the test results which occur with the laboratory procedures for assessing the air and water penetration attributes of windows. Presents data for windows examined under British Standard BS 4315 : part 1 "Methods of test for resistance to air and water penetration - windows and gasket glazing systems". Considers the implications of thesetests for the development of performance levels for use in standards and procurement documents, and proposes a two-stage statistical procedure, based in the first instance on tests on five windows.