Wind effect on the air movement inside buildings.

Discusses the effect of wind on air change rates in buildings. Reports series of model tests conducted in a water flume and a wind tunnel. A plexiglass box with holes in it was filled with gas, either nitrogen or carbon dioxide, and placed in a controlled air flow. The concentration of gas was plotted in a semi-logarithmic form. Gives typical examples of these graphs.Discusses feasibilty of estimating rate of air change by a hyperbolic function, but finds that more tests are needed forpractical recommendations.

Exposure to pollutants in enclosed "living spaces".

A review of literature reporting investigations of pollution in enclosed spaces. Discusses pollution in sealed environments such as submarines, the relation of indoor to outdoor pollution, sources of indoor pollution, and tobacco-induced pollution. Outlines problem of pollution in transportation- related enclosures such as tunnels, subways and garages. Suggests that indoor pollution in public office buildings is of greater potential harm than outdoor pollution. Gives 18 tables summarising measurements of various indoor pollutants made by different studies.

Performance of sealed double-glazing units.

Discusses the problems of sealing double glazing to reduce condensation between the panes. Describes sealed glazing unit and sealants used. Discusses causes of failures. Reports tests for seal leakage made by lowering air pressure surrounding theunit and observing glass deflection. Windows were also tested by weathering in the laboratory and by exposure to actual weather conditions. Discusses results and finds extreme difficulty in providing and maintaining an effective sealing system.

A mathematical model for predicting attic ventilation rates required for preventing condensation on roof sheathing

Presents mathematical model for predicting the heat transfer and moisture- transfer processes in residential attic spaces. Uses model to predict attic ventilation rates required for preventing condensation or frost accumulation on the underside of roof sheathing. Gives attic ventilation charts covering a wide range of outdoor temperatures, ceiling thermal resistances and ceiling air penetration rates. Finds that the addition of a ceiling vapour barrier reduced the required attic ventilation rate by36%, but the effectiveness of a vapour barrier was reduced by air leakage into the attic.

Programmed computer model of air infiltration in small residential buildings with oil furnace.

Describes computer program for the prediction of the air infiltration load in small residential buildings. The model represents an oil-fired furnace, a smoke pipe with barometric damper, a chimney and a non-partitioned building, with leakage openings in the building envelope. The model can be used to predict the air change rate of a small house under various combinations of indoor/outdoor temperature, wind-speed, wind direction and operation of an oil fired furnace.

Encore-Canada: computer program for the study of energy consumption of residential buildings in Canada.

Describes the mathematical methods employed in the ENCORE-Canada computer program which predicts the hourly as well as the annual heating requirements of small residential-type buildings. The model includes the effects of thermal storage, internal heat gains, basement and air infiltration losses, transmission heatlosses and solar heat gains. The heating system is a thermostatically controlled oil-fired furnace with warm air distribution. Hourly solar radiation and weather data forvarious Canadian cities are used to simulate outdoor conditions.

A field study of moisture damage in walls insulated without a vapour barrier.

Describes the results of a major study to find out whether or not wall insulation installed without a vapour barrier causes an increased risk of moisture damage within walls. The exterior walls of 96 homes in Portland, Oregon were opened. Presents results of field and laboratory tests which show the absence of indications of moisture damage. Gives data on shrinkage and settling of insulation and results of air leakage measurements by fan pressurization tests. Concludes that the addition of wallinsulation without a vapour barrier does not cause moisture damage in existing homes.

Residential ventilation with heat recovery improving indoor air quality and saving energy

Discusses the problem of increased levels of indoor air pollution due to reduced ventilation. Suggests ways of lowering pollutant concentrations without compromising energy conservation. One promising method is to mechanically ventilate a residence and recover heat from the exhausted air with an air-to-air heat exchanger.

A model correlating air tightness and air infiltration in houses.

Presents theoretical model which represents a technique of correlating the easily performed pressurization measurement with the more difficult tracer gas technique. The neutral pressure level is explicitly included to estimate the distribution of openings around the building envelope. Describes model in detail and its application to a number of houses in New Jersey and California.

Fuel consumption in industrial buildings

Compares annual fuel consumptions of seven large factories against calculated requirements to illustrate seasonal thermal efficiencies of 7.7 to 49.7%. Shows that ineffective and uncontrolled ventilation is by far the most significant factor in excess fuel consumption. Illustrates savings of 38 to 80% in fuel which have been achieved. Shows that fuel savings of 20 to80% are possible in the factories studied, with 35 to 95% savings possible when heat recovery is provided in addition to other improvements.