Describes research to study movement of air through fully or partially open doorways with and without influence of temperature, and to ascertain amount of supply air required toprevent this movement. Studies door openings of 0.10 to 104 m. wide and temperature differential of 0 to 12 deg.C. States that from these results critical areas in hospitals may be designed more effectively to given requirements.
Describes laboratory test performed on four steel swing windows and one steel double-hung window to determine leakage rates at different values of pressure and humidity. Concludes there is a wide variation in leakage rates of well constructed windows. Test results depend on the method of closing and latching windows, leakage for steel swing windows is found to differ when determined with ascending and descending pressure differences because the window is closed more tightly after completion of the ascending pressure difference.
Full scale measurements were made of wind pressures on the 177m high post office tower, London. The variation of pressure with height was studied from recordings made at nine different levels between 49m and 168m above ground level. It is suggested that wind speeds of greater magnitude than those at the top of the tower sometimes occurred at lower levels.
Reports results of studies conducted in Switzerland in small apartment buildings. Air change rates were measured in ten different apartment buildings using N2O as a tracer gas. Measurements were taken for various wind conditions andtemperature differences and with the windows partly open. Finds that ventilation rate increased by a factor of 4 when the windows on one facade were opened by only a few centimetres.
BSTRACT Describes test made to determine air flow through entrances to a multi-storey building. Temperature and pressure differences across entrances and outside wind speed were recorded and flow through doors studied using laboratory scale models.
Analyses theoretically the natural ventilation of buildings. Derives fundamental formula for the amount of ventilation due to temperature difference from Bernouilli's theorem considering buoyancy. Explains physical meaning of friction loss and theneutral zone, derives pressure distribution due to wind from the shape of buildings and the location of openings. Obtains total expression for amount of ventilation due to both temperature difference and wind.
States direct observations of wind effects on real buildings are necessary for the development of reliable information for wind load estimation. Their essential role is to provide data for the guidance of systematic wind-tunnel investigations. Briefly reviews instrumentation used in a particular tall building and the methods employed to interpret the measurements. The review illustrates the potential, as well as some of the problems of field measurements in providing practical information about wind loading phenomena. Summarizes results and discusses their implications for design.
Describes pressure method for testing whole houses for air leakage. States main advantages compared to tracer gas technique are that equipment is inexpensive, easy to handle and so well adapted to routine tests. The house is pressurized using a powerful fan and the flow through the fan is equivalent to the leakage through the building envelope at given pressure. Summarizes measurements made on test houses. and shows use of thermography to detect leaks. suggests use of pressure test to estimate the natural ventilation of a house.
Notes importance of air motion in shielded buildings in hot and humid climates. Describes wind-tunnel investigations on shielding effect of buildings for a group of buildings comprising parallel rows of identical blocks. Also considers influence of cross-ventilation through shielding building and variations in relative heights of the buildings. Discusses variation of wind speeds inside shielded building related to its distance from shielding building. gives optimum distances of separation for maximum and minimum shielding effect.
The significance of air tightness on building performance and the factors affecting the air leakage performance of the building enclosure are discussed. the ability of the ASTM standard air leakage test method to check the quality of design and manufacture of factory-assembled walls, windows and doors as well as the inability of the method to provide the building designer with quantitative air leakage data for calculating heating and cooling loads and designing smoke control means is also discussed.