Measurements of ventilation rates in houses with natural and mechanical ventilation systems

Describes measurements made to compare ventilation rates in six Belgian houses with both natural and mechanical ventilation systems using O2 and N2O as tracer gases. Ventilation rates were correlated with wind speed. Air leakage across individual components of the house was measured and from this the distribution of leakage areas calculated.

Some studies of infiltration of air through windows

Reports tests of air leakage through various types of window. Recommends introduction of standard for windows

Infiltration through plastered and unplastered brick walls.

Reports tests performed in walls to determine air leakage rates. Lower leakage rates were found with plastered wall than with brick wall and a further reduction in air leakage was obtained by painting the plaster.

Do modern storm windows reduce prime window air leakage?

Describes tests of air leakage performed on both prime windows and storm windows, separately and in tandem at wind velocities of up to 30.m.p.h. All types of windows were tested and upper and lower ranges for infiltration found.

Influence of stack effect on the heat loss in tall buildings

Describes measurements of heat flow taken in three rooms at different heights in a multi-storey office building. Heat supply, internal to external temperature pressure differences, wind velocity and sunshine were recorded. Gives result that it needs more heat to maintain the same room temperature on lower floors than on upper floors. Difference is that heat needed on 32nd floor is approximately 40% less than that on 8th floor.

Wind velocities near a building and their effect on heat loss.

Describes measurements taken in eight rooms in a multi-storey office building. Heat supply, internal to external temperature and pressure differences were recorded. Gives preliminary result that wind velocities near building were substantially lower than at nearby weather bureau.

The measurement of ventilation rates using a radioactive tracer.

Reviews qualities desirable in a tracer gas for the measurement of ventilation rates in buildings. Reports experiments in which radioactive argon was used to measure the ventilation rate in a room. Results obtained agreed with simultaneous measurements using hydrogen as tracer. Suggests use of method for measuring ventilation rates in large buildings and use of krypton gas as an alternative to argon.

Excessive infiltration and ventilation air.

Suggests energy usage can be reduced by lowering the quantity of ventilation air. Reviews ASHRAE standards for minimum ventilation and air quality. Suggests changes in air conditioning design and the use of air purification equipment. Recommends further research.

A tracer gas method for the continuous monitoring of ventilation rates.

Describes how ventilation rates in two houses with recirculating air distribution systems were monitored by injecting CO2 tracer gas into the supply and measuring its concentration in the return air. In one house with solid concrete floor, normal windows and air bricks, ventilation rates were mainly dependent on wind speed. In the other with suspended timber floor and weatherstripped windows ventilation rates were much lower and mainly dependent on internal to external temperature difference.

Residential energy conservation-the Twin Rivers project.

Gives general account of Twin Rivers project summarising main findings from 1972 to date. Includes section on air infiltration. Measurements of infiltration rates were taken using tracer gas method and regression equation found for the data.