Pipes-within-a-pipe heat exchanger used in Provident House.

Briefly describes a heat exchanger designed for use in a tight, solar heated house. The exchanger consists of three 3in. galvanized steel ducts within an 8in. galvanized steel duct. The ducts can be assembled in any length - 33 ft. was used in Provident House, giving a theoretical effectiveness of 33%.

Comparison of calculated and measured values of heat loss in a well insulated house.

Reports heat loss measurements made in an unoccupied house at Kenmay, Scotland. Gives constructional details of this well-insulated house. Reports measurements of energy and temperatures over two heating seasons and short term measurements of ventilation by tracer gas decay method. Finds natural ventilation rate of 0.25 air changes/hour and attributes this to low windspeeds. Compares calculated value of fabric heat loss with measured value and finds good agreement. Finds type of system used, either convective or fan heating has not affected the measured heat loss.

Air-vapour barriers.

The traditional vapour barrier is designed to be a barrier to the diffusion of water vapour. The air-vapour barrier also prevents the natural infiltration of air. Section one of this report discusses air-vapour barriers, the management of air in a tightly sealed house, the positioning of the barrier and testing procedures and standards. Section two gives detailed descriptions and diagrams of the installation of an air-vapour barrier at all parts of a house construction. Includes 123 figures showing precise positioning and installation of the barrier.

Modeling of radon and its daughter concentrations in ventilated spaces.

Discusses sources of radon in buildings and the prediction of levels of radon and daughters. Derives differential equations governing the decay and venting of radon and its daughters. A computer program based on these equations has been written to predict radon and daughter concentrations, total potential alpha energy concentration and equilibrium factor. The program can account for time dependence of ventilation and emanation rates and is readily used by building designers.

Changes of indoor climate in dwellings because of renewal of windows and tightening of joints. Indeklimaforandringer i bolige efter vinduesudskiftninger og fugetaetning.

In order to reduce heating energy consumption, single glazed windows are commonly replaced by double glazing and joints tightened in Danish dwellings. Reports investigation of the influence of such tightening of dwellings on the indoor climate. 25 tightened and 25 not-tightened identical flats were investigated. Finds an improvement in thermal climate and a significant reduction in heat consumption in the retrofitted flats. Finds absolute humidity of indoor air was significantly higher in improved flats, probably due to reduced ventilation.

The airtightness of a sound-proof dwelling house and its ventilation plan.

Reports investigation of the air quality in a sound-insulated dwelling house. Measurements of ventilation rate and concentrations of CO, CO2, and NO2 were measured in a tight sound-insulated dining-kitchen, with and without the operation of a gas range, instantaneous hot-water heater and ventilation fan. Finds that natural ventilation was inadequate when the gas appliances were operating and recommends that an instantaneous gas hot-water heater should be provided with an exclusive air exhauster.

The thermal and ventilative properties of dwellings in Hokkaido.

Describes the thermal and ventilative properties of some older dwellings and the latest test dwelling in Hokkaido. Results include the following.< 1) The above mentioned older dwellings suffer a great heat loss by ventilation and conduction. Therefore such dwellings must be retrofitted.< 2) The airtight dwelling is in danger of condensation due to high humidity.< 3) In the future, the heat recovery system should be used in the airtight dwelling to get rid of high humidity and to increase the supply of fresh air.

Design of ventilation systems in low infiltration detached house.

The air-tightness of various houses is revealed by testing with the pressurization method, and the equivalent open area of air infiltration per floor area is proposed as the index of air-tightness of a house.< Then the heating system, indoor air quality, indoor temperature and humidity and house planning which affect the ventilation design are discussed in connection with the air-tightness of a house.

Indoor air quality in residential buildings.

Discusses indoor air quality in residences with low ventilation rates. Reports investigation of indoor air pollutant levels in a test kitchen with a gas stove under various air change rates. Results indicate that gas stoves generate high emissions of carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde and respirable aerosols. Recommends a kitchen ventilation rate of at least 170 cu.m.&h.< Also reports study of CO and NO2 emissions from gas appliances in an energy- efficient research house.