Discusses the Swedish trend to build super insulated nearly airtight dwellings. Mentions problems encountered in tight buildings, such as severe ground floor condensation and mould growth. Shows the importance of the vapour barrier in preventing condensation. Compares exhaust and balanced ventilation systems in tight houses. States that sealing houses in Sweden is costeffective, partly because of an integrated approach to incorporating energy saving features in new housing.
Presents pressure tests pre and post retrofit for several groups of North American houses which have been sealed to reduce air leakage. This summarizes research carried out in Canada and the USA over the last few years. Briefly discusses test procedures used.
Presents a study to improve knowledge of the air tightness of the building envelope. The airtightness of buildings was measured by the pressure method and a literature study was carried out of corresponding measurements inScandinavia. The air tightness was measured mainly in timber frame detached houses,in some detached houses of masonry as well as flats. Notes that minorsealing techniques can improve Finnish dwellings, which are leaky compared to Swedish requirements. States that ventilation, heating and air infiltration must be considered together.
Summarizes the information obtained concerning new residential construction in the US and points out important differences between US and Swedish technology and construction methods for energy efficient housing. Selected building components for US housing are described and compared with corresponding Swedish techniques. Most important differences are -1. Differences in ventilation strategies - almost all new Swedish houses have continuous mechanical ventilaton. 2. The airtightness of building envelopes. 3. Wall constructions and standard insulation practices.
Presents a review of work carried out by SCBR concerned with airtightness of buildings and ventilation up to January 1982. Describes important features of building systems and mechanics, ventilation systems and immediate surroundings of importance to ventilation process. Assesses the building physics aspects of ventilation systems for various building categories. Discusses a number of ventilation case studies for detached houses and apartment buildings, and presents existing computer programs for single-cell and multi-cell models.
Fan pressurization tests on 2 unoccupied houses have been conducted once every 2 weeks for a period of a year to determine the seasonal variation in air tightness. House no.1 was built with more insulation than is required by the local building
Health problems have occurred after the introduction of building regulations with stricter requirements for airtightness. Reviews work done to improve problems associated with the thermal environment and human heat balance, building and installation conditions; the chemical environment and human awareness of pollutants; medical aspects; radon radiation; microbiological conditions; energy savings, air quality and efficient ventilation; thermal insulation and airtightness; static electricity and toxic gases from building materials and the problems of low ventilation rates.
Discusses radon risks in housing and carcinogenic effects. Compares background radiation as part of our natural environment and the effects of radon gas on building materials. Notes effects of reduced ventilation designed to reduce energy consumption and its influence on the frequency of cancer.
States that many health complaints attributed to tight buildings (tight building syndrome) may be alleviated by slightly lowering the thermostat. Discusses the ISO draft proposal DP7730 which defines comfort limits in buildings for occupants according to several comfort parameters.
Describes the monitoring of 15 low energy houses built by Manchester City Council. Conservation measures include insulation, internal draught lobbies to exterior doors, draughtproofed windows and doors and tight building envelope, window ventilators with extract fans. Monitoring consists of a continuous recording of a limited number of basic parameters, and an intermittent recording of a larger number of variables at shorter time intervals. The monitoring apparatus yields electronically recorded digital data which is processed by computer.