Basic characteristics of low-cost houses in order to reduce the energy consumption for heating.

Describes a project undertaken for the CEC to build low-energy houses according to a particular design methodology, and to verify the efficiency and practical application of this design. Describes general site layout, climatic effects on the site, and design methodology as applied to the houses. Aims to undertake energy audits in each of the houses,including measurements of air temperature, solar radiation, wind speed, "steady state" behaviour and air infiltration.

Low energy houses: some measured energy consumption figures.

Presents space heating and total energy consumption values for a one-year monitoring period for a group of 27 low energy houses in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. These have a number of energy conserving features, including air tightness, controlled ventilation, air-to-air heat exchangers, passive solar heating and high insulation levels. The average space heating energy consumption for the 27 houses was 43.7 Kj/sq.m.DD May 1980-May 1981.The total energy consumption for the houses averaged 365 Mj/sq.m. The space heating energy consumption averaged .228 Mj/sq.m.

Build tight - ventilate right. Bygg tatt - ventilera ratt.

Briefly describes the need for air tight houses as an energy conservation measure, and for preventing moisture damage. Shows that very tight houses (0.5 ach/h) with mechanical ventilation function better than houses which have just fulfilled Swedish building requirements, or which have unsuitable ventilation systems. In some cases, condensation has formed on the inside of windows, and individual rooms sometimes receive insufficient ventilation. States that only in sufficiently airtight houses can ventilation be regulated to the required level and efficient heat recovery can function.

Energy and the built environment.

Provides a brief summary of Swedish energy policy. Covers current knowledge and research in Sweden concerning low-energy buildings and building services, energy supply, the built environment and heat pumps.

Energy efficient houses - an integrated approach.

Outlines the design of 6 energy efficient houses in Co. Kildare by the Electricity Supply Board, Ireland. The aim of the project is to collect and disseminate information on the costs and benefits of energy efficient houses. The houses will be monitored both occupied and unoccupied over a number of years, using a microcomputer on-site, with the required parameter values eventually being processed on a mainframe computer. Includes a description of the methods to be used in minimizing natural ventilation losses eg improved window joinery, entry point lobbies and appropriate draught sealing.

Design and construction of low energy houses in Saskatoon.

Describes details of wall and foundation designs that have been used in constructing super-insulated houses on the Canadian prairies. One trend has been the development of the double framing system in which two sets of wall studs are used one

Ventilation requirements and natural air leakage in residences.

In a modern residence with reduced air infiltration, a problem may arise if the fresh air requirement is left to natural leakage. The article discusses this problem, and describes techniques for measuring air leakage and typical results. The contaminants which define the need for ventilation are described and the case for controlled ventilation systems (and possibly heat recovery devices) is made. Areas for further research are recommended.

Is ventilation with natural draught sufficient. Ruttaako painovoimainen ilmanvaihto.

Investigations in Denmark show that there are as many as 75 different compounds in indoor air in tight houses including toluene, xylene, and radon. The dust in homes contains a large number of allergically active ingredients, the most important being the dust mite, which occurs in bed clothes.< States that good air quality is therefore difficult to maintain with natural ventilation in new tight houses. If the hygienic demands of this decade increase the need for ventilation, mechanical ventilation seems to stand a good chance.

Residential ventilation with heat recovery.

Discusses the use of a regenerative, air-to-air, rotary heat exchanger as part of a controlled ventilation system in a modern tightly built house. Describes analytical studies and the construction of a prototype. A four-month trial ina test-house indicated that the unit would be capable of recovering 5000 Kw/hof waste energy if operations were extended over the full heating system.

The tightness of the building stock in Finland. Havaintoja rakennuskannan tiiviystasosta.

Gives air leakage measurements which show that improvement of the tightness of the outer core of a building gives an energy saving of 5000 Kw/a in comparison to a conventionally constructed building.< Finds that the most leakage occurs at the joints of walls and ceiling, followed by the breakthrough for electrical wiring, the corners of the buildings, the windows, the joints of wall and floor and the joints of ducts and ceiling.< Older houses in Sweden have approximately the same rate of leakage as in Finland, ie 5-10 changes per hour at 50 pa.