Residential energy consumption can be decreased if air infiltration is reduced. However, reduced air infiltration can lead to problems with indoor air quality (eg excess humidity and high levels of indoor-generated air contaminants.). One sol
Common assumption is that tight houses cause mould. Questions this attitude and suggests that low-energy and very well insulated housing causes mould as a result of condensation. Discusses factors which cause mould and possible countermeasures.
States that a comprehensive sealing program should be considered in every residential energy conservation program. Covers the theory of air flow in a structure , how this theory is converted into a practical service, and theeffect on the house including humidity and air quality concerns. Describes the infiltrometer, a pressurization device used to detect air leakage, how to useit and how to interpret data.
Reports a survey on both solar and conventional homes in north-eastern New York State. Finds that houses which are more airtight have 3 times the radon levels of conventional houses. The highest 2 levels of radon in the solar homes give doses over 30 yrs that are known to produce lung cancer in 1% of uranium miners. Summer readings in more than one half of the cases are different from winter ones by a factor of 2 or more, so that year-round measurements are necessary for precise dosimetry. The track etching technique is ideally suited for such measurements.
Describes the monitoring over a 15-month period of the heat supplied to and heat lost from an unoccupied house in the grounds of the Cement and Concrete Association. The house was sealed to prevent air infiltration and the windows were covered to eliminate heat transfer by radiation between inside andoutside. Finds that heat losses through the house fabric are proportional to U-values and to the time-averaged temperature differential between the insideand outside environment. Comparison between heat input and measured heat loss shows that cold bridges constitute a significant energy drain.
Treats the relation between transmission heat loss and ventilation heat loss of buildings. Notes normal methods of fresh air ventilation of dwellings and problems arising with buildings being made increasingly airtight so that air infiltration is greatly reduced with consequent condensation and lack of maintenance of minimum hygiene standards. Illustrates and discusses possible future ventilation systems including mechanical supply and extract ventilation systems incorporating heat recovery systems. Illustrates several alternatives diagramatically.
Briefly reviews different types of air-to-air heat exchangers, and their relative efficiency. Discusses their effectiveness in removing indoor pollutants such as radon and formaldehyde from tight houses.
Studies a sample of 58 occupied homes in Rochester NY to assess 1. the effectiveness of construction techniques designed to reduce air leakage 2. the indoor air quality and air-exchange rates in selected airtight houses and 3. the impact on
Describes investigations into the air change rate in dwellings with very air-tight windows carried out by the West German Institute for Water Earth and Air Hygiene under a contract from the Federal Building Ministry. Treats the 80rooms investigated in 20 different buildings and in some office type rooms in Berlin. Notes the measurement method and the procedure of evaluating the results. Gives some results in graphs. Summarises the findings of the analysis of the results.
Comments on the benefits of tighter house construction and gives a summary of the current tightness levels of the US housing stocks, based on a 300-house survey of infiltration measurements. Looks at 2 case studies of energy-efficient houses both for the details of their construction and for the air quality in the finished houses. Presents a set of drawing details that illustrate specific techniques for reducing infiltration. Includes methods of weatherstripping doors and windows, caulking and sealing, possible leakage points, and installing vapour barriers.