Combined thermal measurement and simulation for the detailed analysis of four occupied low-energy buildings

This paper describes four simulation models, which reproduce energy and temperature measurements of occupied buildings very well. These buildings represent small to medium size residential low-energy buildings of different construction type, which are typical for mid-Europe. For the simulation, the software TRNSYS is used. The reproduction of measured energy and temperatures in time steps of 15 minutes is well suited for precise predictions on heating energy demand and comfort of the buildings and modifications of them.

Breathing freely in schools - results and model approaches concerning the air quality in classrooms (In German)

Carbon dioxide concentration, indoor air temperature and relative air humidity are studied in 7 schools with natural ventilation systems, during 58 days on one year. The results show that the level of 1500 ppm of CO2 is exceeded in 39 days. A software programme was developed to calculate the CO2 concentration level according to the number of pupils and the ventilation rate.
Health problems may result from a too low ventilation rate.

Effects of temperature and humidification in the office environment

In this paper, the links between temperature and Sick Building Syndrome symptoms on the one hand and temperature and workers'perceptions of air dryness in environments with and without humidification on the other hand are evaluated .The average intensity of symptoms and perceptions of dry air relative to room temperature in humidified and non-humidified conditions are studied. The results are presented then analysed .

Evaluating comfort with varying temperatures : a graphic design tool

A graphic tool is presented in this paper. The daily swings of temperature can be represented on this graph, and this point can be compared with the comfort zones for different activity levels. The graph allows the representation of climatic variables, the definition of comfort zones, the selection of bioclimatic design resources.

Material properties, room-climate measurements and building history - an interdisciplinary project to set the conditions of restoration and re-use for the fortress of Kufstein, Tyrol, Austria

For the restoration of the historic fortress of Kufstein, the high humidity problems encountered have required special investigations : the capillary water up-take characteristics of the wall stones and identification of the ventilation deficiencies have been studied.
Results show that a controlled ventilation system may help to reduce the problems associated with humidity and condensation.

Adaptive comfort temperature model of air-conditioned building in Hong Kong

This paper deals with the results of a large-scale survey performed to develop new notions about ACT (adaptive comfort temperature) in buildings in humid sub-tropical Hong-Kong ; the aim was to determine the adaptive interface relationship between indoor comfort temperature and outdoor air temperature in order to preset the indoor air temperature as a function of the oudoor air temperature.

The dynamics of comfort and behaviour in buildings

This paper deals with thermal comfort as part of the dynamic interaction between people and their environment. The comfort temperature is continuously changing. The author introduces the idea of an adaptive thermal comfort through an exploration of the results from thermal comfort surveys in that field. Implications of this approach for building is studied along with how existing technologies should be modified or extended to predict energy use and comfort in occupied buildings.

To be or not to be comfortable : basis and prediction

Through the body is thermally neutral, it does not mean that there is a constant or equal thermo-equilibrium all over the body. There is a problem about the definition of the term "comfort" and the relationship between the thermal sensation and the affective estimate.

Indoor air humidification, sick building syndrome symptoms, and perceived indoor air quality in the office environment

Dryness is still one of the major complaints concerning indoor air quality in office buildings and respective nonindustrial environments. Dampness in buildings in terms of excess amounts of water in the solid parts, and the harmful consequences have been discussed vigorously in recent years. Indoor air humidity, which means water vapour in the indoor air, has been given less attention.

Predicting indoor temperatures in closed buildings with high thermal mass

Temperatures in buildings with low and high thermal mass levels have been monitored during the warm period in Kenya. The effect of thermal mass in lowering the maximum indoor daytime temperatures has been evaluated as very effective.