Within the last years CFD has become an essential tool to investigate and optimize concepts of train coaches during an early design stage to achieve best results without major modifications of the final design. The simulation of the current railroad double deck coach gives some special challenges because of the complex channel system and the different boundary conditions on each floor. First the air duct including the outlet vents is investigated and optimized. The results are used as boundary condition for the simulation of the passenger's compartment.
A new standard, ISO/DIS 14505 is under preparation, dealing with the assessment of the thermal environment in vehicles, based on the equivalent temperature. The scope of this paper is to demonstrate the different results obtained when evaluating the thermal environment inside a vehicle, using the three well known parameters, air temperature, operative temperature and equivalent temperature. The tests were carried out in the winter season during heat-up of the vehicle cabin.
This paper first describes the analysis results of flow and temperature fields around the human body.Thanks to various examples, it is made clear that CFD has developed into a very effective and powerful tool for analysis and design of healthy indoor environments.
Temperature and humidity changes can affect building materials and the building structure (deformation or breakage). A research was carried out by a holographic interferometer.Thanks to those investigations of temperature and humidity deformation, it has been made possible to give recommendations on maintenance in Russian churches and cathedrals.
That study was performed in a call center. During nine consecutive weeks, temperature and outdoor air supply rate were combined and introduced to the occupants in a blind intervention approach.Those 2 variables had significant interaction effects on the workers' talk time.
This paper presents the results of a field experiment made on 30 female office workers : they were investigated on their perception of environmental conditions and the intensity of the Sick Building Symptoms if any, at 3 levels of temperature and humidity, and 2 levels of ventilation rate.
The conclusion is that working conditions improved when subjects worked at slightly lower levels of air temperature and humidity.
The hygrothermal behavior of the building envelope affects the overall performance of a building. There are numerous tools for the simulation of the heat and moisture transfer in the building envelope and also whole building simulation tools for energy calculations.
The main objective of this study was to investigate the Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) in officebuildings and to understand better how HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning)systems work and what their effects are on IAQ over a sustained period. Two Frenchcommercial buildings were chosen, located in urban areas of Lyon and Paris, and for one daya month, over the course of 1 year, a number of IAQ related variables were recorded bothinside, including the HVAC system, and outside the buildings.
The focus of this paper is on cost effectiveness of remedial measures for existing buildings in order to reduce high summer time indoor temperatures. A typical Finnish office building was selected for the analysis. The cost items included in the analysis are: the capital cost of the remedial measure (increase of ventilation, mechanical cooling added in central air handling unit), cost of the used energy (heat and electricity), and the cost of deteriorated productivity due to high temperatures.