Cost effectiveness of some remedial measures to control summer time temperatures in an office building.

This paper presents a summary of calculations on the total cost effects of the remedial measures to reduce high summer time room temperatures in a hypothetical building. In the base case the room air temperature is too high during the summer, and causes a considerable reduction in the productivity. The following economical items are included in the study: first cost of the remedial measure, the effect of the measure in operating cost, particularly on energy consumption, and the effect on productivity.

Baseline indoor air quality pollutant characterisation in five United States schools.

This paper summarizes baseline results from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) school demonstration studies. Indoor pollutants of concern were formaldehyde, sum of targeted volatile organic compounds o:VOC), carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5), particulate matter less than 10 microns (PM10), and bioaerosols (bacteria, fungi, and thermophiles). The five schools presented here had no significant indoor air quality problems. Locations of these schools were distributed throughout various climate zones in the United States.

Thailand ventilation comfort chart.

The paper presents a ventilation comfort chart that has been developed under Thailand climate and using Thai volunteers. 183 male and 105 female college-age subjects were exposed to different thermal conditions in order to investigate the effect of air velocity on thermal comfort in ventilated "non-conditioned" spaces. To this end commercial electric fans were used to control the air velocity near the subjects. The air velocity varied between 0.2 and 3 m/s. Room conditions varied between 26°C and 36°C (D.B.T.) and 50-80% relative humidity.

Error analysis of measurement and control techniques of outside air intake rates in VAV systems.

This paper provides a theoretical error analysis of common airflow measurement and control techniques to maintain minimum outside air intake rates in variable air volume (VA V) systems. The results of the error analysis indicate that control strategies using direct airflow measurement from either an averaging Pitot-tube array or an electronic thermal anemometry provided the best ventilation control.

Detection and solution of indoor air quality problems in a Danish town hall.

In connection with the research programme "Healthy Buildings", a building with indoor air quality problems was selected for further investigations. A Danish town hall was chosen because of many complaints over several years. A full-scale mock-up of a typical town hall office was built in the climate laboratory. A new heating and ventilating system and a new control strategy were chosen and implemented into the town hall.

Significance of controls for achieving thermal comfort in naturally ventilated buildings.

During a field study of the thermal comfort of workers in natural ventilated office buildings in Oxford and Aberdeen, UK, carried out which included information about use of building controls. The data was analysed to explore the effect the outdoor temperature has on the indoor temperature and how this is effected by occupants' use of environmental controls during the peak summer (June, July and August).

CFD simulation of airflow and temperature field in room with convective heat source.

CFD simulation of airflow and temperature field in a heated room has been described in the paper. The tracking of pollutant particle movement is also presented here. The comparisons between computation and experiment show good and acceptable agreement. It can be concluded that CFD prediction can capture the main features of convective flow and provide satisfactory results. It can be seen that the thermal wall jet created by radiator greatly influences airflow pattern, temperature and pollutant particle distribution in the heated room.

Air flow pattern in courtyards.

The relationships, in courtyards, between wind flow pattern and temperature distribution have been studied. Thus, in the first part of this study a dimensionless temperature based on the exchange of heat by convection is defined. Then, using the ratio of depth to width (Aspect Ratio) as the main parameter, we are able to explain the curious behaviour observed. Finally, courtyards are divided into several zones in order to separate the different heat sources in each one, allowing us a stratification study.