Determines ventilation rates and intercell flow rates in naturally ventilated office building using multiple tracer gases. Subdivides the building into 3zones and seeds each zone individually with a different tracer gas. Monitors the time histories of the concentrations of all gases in each zone using non-dispersive infra red gas analysers. Calculates air flow rates from experimental data.
Describes the retrofitting of a 14-storey office block in Oslo, done as part of an energy conservation project carried out in Norway 1979-82. The main reduction in energy consumption was achieved by tightening air leaks between concrete wall elements and windows by the application of sealing compound in 2 critical types of joint in the facade. Measures the energy consumption one year before and one year after retrofitting, using thermography to find the air leaks and to verify the tightening afterwards. Also carries out pressurization tests using the building's ventilation system.
Describes the testing of 8 federal office buildings (size from 3000 sq.m. - 45000 sq.m.) for their air infiltration characteristics, as part of the NBS program to develop diagnostic test methods for evaluating the thermal integrity of federal office buildings. Performs tracer gas tests in the autumn, winter and spring to evaluate both the ventilation of these buildings during occupied periods and the natural air leakage under various weather conditions.
Reports the results of measurement of ventilation efficiency in a full scale model of a small office with a diffuse air supply, which can be used to improve ventilation efficiency and therefore reduce air supply rates. Steady state and transient definitions of ventilation efficiency are given. Finds that ventilation efficiency depends on air flow rate and heat gain in the office. Higher air flow rates give lower pollutant concentration in the ocupied zone but also more mixing between the occupied and under-ceiling zones.
Despite having balanced mechanical ventilation, a large number of modern buildings in Sweden have unsatisfactory indoor climate. Problems include mould, irritation of the eyes, nose and throat, skin rashes, feelings of dryness, hoarseness andheadaches. To control ventilation according to requirements the right indicator variable must be selected and the system must permit the proper control in the occupied zones. Measurements of air pollutants were carried out outside and inside a mechanically ventilated office building.
Parts 2 and 3 of a series of articles. Describes office buildings with natural and mechanical ventilation systems mentioned in part one, where the mechanical ventilation plus humidification and cooling is used only during the coldest parts of the winter and hottest parts of the summer. Provides comparative cost analysis for the building. Discusses design criteria to take account of fullor part time natural ventilation. Treats maximum room depths, window types,external and internal doors, furniture, room layouts.
Notes the large savings possible if ventilation were adapted to the prevailing need. A promising possibility for indicating occupancy and thus the ventilation requirement is measuring the level of carbon dioxide. The project includes a test with equipment for CO2-monitoring of the exhaust air flow in an office building which controls the volume of outdoor air supply, thusmaintaining the CO2 level constant. Measures how the CO2 level can vary locally,how other pollutants in air can vary, how much energy can be saved.
Undertakes experimental studies to identify antecedent conditions of various health and comfort problems experienced by office workers in sealed, air conditioned buildings in New York City and Vancouver. Tries to relate building characteristics (paricularly of lighting and ventilation) to prevalence andincidence of reported health and comfort problems. Finds that changing both lighting and ventilation simultaneously results in a 31.2% reduction in reported eye irritation.
Data on energy use was compiled for 223 retrofitted US commercial buildings and analysed for average savings, average retrofit costs, correlation between cost and savings, type of retrofit attempted etc. Dominant building types were schools and offices. Nearly all buildings included operations and maintenance changes as part of the retrofit. 89% of the buildings which saved energy by retrofitting achieved a payback (simple) in less than 3 years. 9% of the buildings failed to save (generally because of improper maintenance). Average savings for the entire sample were 20%.
Discusses whether air conditioning could be replaced. Treats the evolving concept of constructing office buildings designed to meet comfort conditions by natural ventilation, with mechanical ventilation, cooling and humidification applied only during the coldest parts of the winter and hottest periods of the summer. Describes the practical application of this concept to three office buildings in West Germany.