Discusses whether air conditioning could be replaced. Treats the evolving concept of constructing office buildings designed to meet comfort conditions by natural ventilation, with mechanical ventilation, cooling and humidification applied only during the coldest parts of the winter and hottest periods of the summer. Describes the practical application of this concept to three office buildings in West Germany.
Describes a system installed in the EKONO office building in Helsinki which allows the amount of CO2 in the exhaust air to control the ventilation rate. Uses a CO2 indicator, and adjusts the mixture of exterior and recirculated air so that the amount of CO2 during working hours is kept on ca 700 ppm. Describes use of equipment during winter 1981-82, when exterior air flow is registered. Measures the proportion of CO2 locally in order to study occasional variations that may occur. Studies the proportion of other pollutants in the room air with a gas chromatograph.
Gives a series of short articles on air quality, air infiltration, and the ventilation needs of low energy buildings. These are -< 1. Sandberg M. Quantifying the pollution. Defines the quality of ventilation< 2. Warren P. Predicting infiltration rates. Explains BRE's method of predicting air infiltration in houses< 3. Getting close to zero. Describes the low energy EKONO office complex< 4. Sherman M. Grimsrud D. Which ventilation system? Shows that the choice of the economically optimum ventilation system depends on the tightness of the building.
Studies a modern energy efficient office building in a series of experiments with mobile laboratories connected on-line with the building. Measures inorganic air contaminants (CO, CO2, NO2). Makes off-line measurements of volatile organic con
Reports on a study conducted to determine the impact of different ventilation rates on office building energy use, first cost, and peak electrical demand. Uses the DOE-2.1 computer program to simulate an energy-efficient office building in 5 cit
Describes the monitoring of indoor air quality in a San Francisco office building where occupants had registered eye, nose and throat irritation complaints. Data was taken under two different ventilation rates. Carbon dioxide concentrations increased as the ventilation rate decreased, odour perceptibility increased slightly at the lowest ventilation rate, and other pollutants generally showed very low concentrations, which increased when ventilation was reduced.
Investigates what minimum fresh air supply per person is required to prevent unacceptable odour annoyance due to stale smells in offices and comparable buildings. The experiment is carried out in different buildings in rooms of varying size and occupancy density, with mechanical or natural ventilation. Determines the air supply to the room, the CO2 concentration, the number of lighted cigarettes, the odour concentration and the extent of odour annoyance to occupants.
Describes a new method, termed Minisystem Analysis (MSA) developed for the calculation of the energy conservation potential of an individual building in which a number of energy conservation measures interact. In this method, account is taken of the fact that effects cannot at all times be added, and that certain measures must always be combined in order that the full effect may be obtained.
In most office buildings, the continuous renewal of air cannot be guaranteed by means of ventilation through windows during any optional time. It is known (in the case of radiators and window ventilation) that when a window is open the ventilating heat cannot be recovered and other heat losses will occur.< The paper proves that the heating of a building by air is a greater energy saver then the conventional solution through static heating and window ventilation.