Building energy use compilation and analysis (BECA). Part C - Conservation progress in retrofitted commercial buildings.

Data on energy use was compiled for 223 retrofitted US commercial buildings and analysed for average savings, average retrofit costs, correlation between cost and savings, type of retrofit attempted etc. Dominant building types were schools and offices. Nearly all buildings included operations and maintenance changes as part of the retrofit. 89% of the buildings which saved energy by retrofitting achieved a payback (simple) in less than 3 years. 9% of the buildings failed to save (generally because of improper maintenance). Average savings for the entire sample were 20%.

Natural ventilation - auxiliary ventilation. Naturliche Luftung - unterstutzende Luftung.

Discusses whether air conditioning could be replaced. Treats the evolving concept of constructing office buildings designed to meet comfort conditions by natural ventilation, with mechanical ventilation, cooling and humidification applied only during the coldest parts of the winter and hottest periods of the summer. Describes the practical application of this concept to three office buildings in West Germany.

A CO2-controlled ventilation system.

Describes a system installed in the EKONO office building in Helsinki which allows the amount of CO2 in the exhaust air to control the ventilation rate. Uses a CO2 indicator, and adjusts the mixture of exterior and recirculated air so that the amount of CO2 during working hours is kept on ca 700 ppm. Describes use of equipment during winter 1981-82, when exterior air flow is registered. Measures the proportion of CO2 locally in order to study occasional variations that may occur. Studies the proportion of other pollutants in the room air with a gas chromatograph.

Air Control.

Gives a series of short articles on air quality, air infiltration, and the ventilation needs of low energy buildings. These are -< 1. Sandberg M. Quantifying the pollution. Defines the quality of ventilation< 2. Warren P. Predicting infiltration rates. Explains BRE's method of predicting air infiltration in houses< 3. Getting close to zero. Describes the low energy EKONO office complex< 4. Sherman M. Grimsrud D. Which ventilation system? Shows that the choice of the economically optimum ventilation system depends on the tightness of the building.

The influence of ventilation on indoor/outdoor air contaminants in an office building.

Studies a modern energy efficient office building in a series of experiments with mobile laboratories connected on-line with the building. Measures inorganic air contaminants (CO, CO2, NO2). Makes off-line measurements of volatile organic con

The impact of ventilation rates on the design of office buildings.

Reports on a study conducted to determine the impact of different ventilation rates on office building energy use, first cost, and peak electrical demand. Uses the DOE-2.1 computer program to simulate an energy-efficient office building in 5 cit

The effects of reduced ventilation on indoor air quality in an office building.

Describes the monitoring of indoor air quality in a San Francisco office building where occupants had registered eye, nose and throat irritation complaints. Data was taken under two different ventilation rates. Carbon dioxide concentrations increased as the ventilation rate decreased, odour perceptibility increased slightly at the lowest ventilation rate, and other pollutants generally showed very low concentrations, which increased when ventilation was reduced.

Investigation into the minimum allowable fresh air supply per person in buildings. Onderzoek naar de toelaatbare minimum verseluchttoevoer per persoon ingebouwen.

Investigates what minimum fresh air supply per person is required to prevent unacceptable odour annoyance due to stale smells in offices and comparable buildings. The experiment is carried out in different buildings in rooms of varying size and occupancy density, with mechanical or natural ventilation. Determines the air supply to the room, the CO2 concentration, the number of lighted cigarettes, the odour concentration and the extent of odour annoyance to occupants.

Right combination of measures in the right building at the right time

Describes a new method, termed Minisystem Analysis (MSA) developed for the calculation of the energy conservation potential of an individual building in which a number of energy conservation measures interact. In this method, account is taken of the fact that effects cannot at all times be added, and that certain measures must always be combined in order that the full effect may be obtained.