Air distribution in buildings Luftfordeling i lokaler

Discusses difficulties inherent in multiplexity of full-scale trials and the use of EDP simulation in models. Considers the measurement of low air movement velocities using different types of anemometers and field trials in lecture rooms and open-plan offices. Reports on studies into ventilation efficiency and full scale trials. Reviews International Institute of Refrigeration Congress held in Essen September 1981.

Tracer gas measurement in an office. Spangasmatuingar i ett rontovsrum.

Reports on research project to study the effects of different methods of heating an office, temperature and draught conditions, ventilation efficiency and heat storage in joint structures. Gives test room digramatically and tracer gas concentration under different conditions, both during summer andwinter.

Energy saving measures for municipal and other office buildings.

This research report explores the possibilities for energy saving in municipal office buildings. It is based on a study carried out for one London borough in mid-1980`s taking one specific building complex, comprising two adjoining buildings, as an example. The energy-saving measures covered include reduction of air-change rates by draught- proofing windows doors and skylights, and the report indicates the scale of potential savings along with the capital costs.

Energy savings: Measurements in an office building stage 1. Energisparingar: Matningar i kontorsbyggnad Etapp 1.

An energy saving survey was carried out in an office building in Stockholm during the autumn of 1978. The measures which were proposed are now being carried out. This report details the measurements made which include, airtightness testing of the building, pressure drops across facades, air flow measurements, temperature measurements in ventilation systems, temperature measurements in rooms, boiler combustion efficiencies, electricity consumption, oil consumption and thermographic inspection.

Natural ventilation and the P.S.A. estate.

Gives results of a statistical survey of energy consumption in British government buildings. Suggests one reason for high consumption may be excessive ventilation. Reports field trial of the effect of reducing natural ventilation in a London office building. Window frames were sealed with a rubber mastic, giving an annual fuel saving of 22%. Finds measure was highly cost effective with a payback period of less than three years.< Discusses problem of heat loss through large doors in hangars and workshops.

The Ekono building - cost effective energy design.

Discusses energy saving measures taken in the Ekono office building, headquarter of Ekono consulting engineers, situated near Helsinki. Describes the use of hollow slabs for intermediate floors, tight window construction, the extract air window system, efficient lighting and computer control of ventilation. It is planned to control ventilation by monitoring the concentration of carbon dioxide in the building. Reports measurements of infiltration rate with nitrous oxide as a tracer gas using both constant concentration and decay rate techniques.

The natural ventilation of tall office buildings.

Reports study of the natural ventilation in elementary tall office buildings has been made using the analogy between the flow of air through a building and the passage of an electric current through a circuit of resistances. The prime motive forces, those of wind pressure and stack effect are detailed, and experimental values for these and other parameters related to the building are outlined.

Ventilation rates

Treats investigations in office building where 1) flow rates of supply air, return air and ventilation between main office area and adjacent rooms were measured with an anemometer. Return air rates remained constant but ventilation rates varied widely during measurement periods. 2) CO2 was used as tracer gas to determine ventilation rates in offices. Calculates alterations in gas concentrations in rooms adjacent to stairwell and changes in outdoor air concentrations. During air conditioning, ventilation rates in the room were 4-5 room air changer per hour.

Natural radiation in the urban environment.

Summarizes previous work on natural background radiation levels and reports some new data from Boston Mass.

Determination of combined air infiltration and ventilation rates in a nine-story office building.

Reports measurements of ventilation rates made in a nine-story office building. Two methods were used; tracer gas decay rate using sulphur hexafluoride and a direct method when air flow rates through roof vents and exhaust units were measured. Gives summary of results and finds good agreement between the two methods.