Modern UK office buildings have a reputation of being energy profligate, largely due to the fan power requirements of commercial air conditioning. Most architects and HVAC designers only associate low-energy consumption with natural ventilation. However, the UK electricity utilities have peak maximum demands in winter, and buildings need to be designed for year-round lowenergy usage. Relatively few monitored studies of the total annual energy implications of natural and mechanical ventilation strategies operating in conjunction with fabric thermal storage have been published.
Ventilation design has a long history in China. The ancient pioneers used engineering skills to change the indoor environment. In this review, basic natural ventilation design ideas are introduced from both a historical and modern viewpoint. Attention is paid to new natural ventilation system developments, such as the design and testing of natural ventilation inlets and outlets for the stack and solar chimneys. Theoretical aspects of ventilation design are also considered. Today, the use of mechanical ventilation systems in China is growing for both domestic and non-domestic buildings.
The target in this study was to decrease the energy use for transportation of air (fanenergy) with a factor of three. Two real systems composed of existing componentswere constructed in a laboratory; a mechanical exhaust system and a balanced system.The flow rates through the systems were set at values according to the Dutch BuildingRegulations. This situation is called the reference situation. A number ofimprovements have been tested and studied.
This article describes a ventilation system, developed within the framework of aEuropean project supported by the JOULE III programme (NAVAIR project). Theconcept used - natural ventilation assisted by air induction combines the advantages ofnatural ventilation and the performances of mechanical ventilation.
The operation and performance of forced-air ventilation systems with the aid of a dynamic modeling and simulation computer program are presented. The functions and features of GEMS (Generalized Engineering Modeling and Simulation), a dynamic modeling and simulation software tool, are briefly described. Using GEMS, the effects of different ventilation airflow rates and sensible and moisture efficiencies on the thermal comfort environment within the conditioned space were analyzed.
The development of guidelines for performance based innovative mechanical ventilationsystems in residential and commercial buildings is included in the European Commissionproject TIPVENT Towards Improved Performances of Mechanical Ventilation Systems.The overall aim of TIPVENT is to promote improved performances of mechanical ventilationsystems and the introduction and implementation of innovative designs. The development ofperformance oriented procedures for designing, commissioning and maintaining mechanicalventilation systems plays a key role in the project.
Dwellings airtigthness is not well known in practice, in France.When dwellings are equipped with mechanical ventilation systems (which represents about 95% of the new dwellings in France) the airtigthness can strongly influence the performance ofventilation.In the frame of the European Joule Project TIP-VENT (Towards Improved MechanicalVentilation Systems) , measurements of airtightness and underpressures were made onthree multifamily buildings.
The move towards improving building air-tightness to save energy has increased theincidence of poor indoor air quality and associated problems, such as condensation onwindows, mould, rot and fungus on window frames. Mechanical ventilation heat recoverysystems (MVHR) combined with heat pumps offer a means of significantly improving indoorair quality as well as providing heating and cooling required in buildings.This paper is concerned with the testing and performance of a novel ventilation heat pumpsystem developed for the domestic market (1,2,3).