Restaurant workers have a high risk to be exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in their work. In Finland the latest tobacco Act has set more stringent requirements for the smoking in restaurants. Despite of the tightened legislation most of the restaurant employees are still continuously exposed to ETS. Ventilation techniques enable significantly to reduce employees exposure to ETS in hospitality facilities, where smoking is permitted.
This paper presents the behaviour of a thermal plume combine with a forced ventilation. A method to locate the position of the thermocline in a ventilated room is shown. It also gives and compares the results obtained by means of a solutal simulation on an hydraulic model and from full-scale experiments in a climatic chamber.
This paper provides a summary of current knowledge about the associations of ventilation types in office buildings with sick building syndrome symptoms. Most studies completed to date indicate that relative to natural ventilation, air conditioning, with or without humidification, was consistently associated with a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of one or more SBS symptoms, by approximately 30% to 200%.
In addressing the goals of energy-efficiency and indoor air quality (IAQ) in homes, industry teams in the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America program are installing mechanical ventilation systems in tight homes. A variety of designs - some simple and inexpensive, some more sophisticated - have been demonstrated. The advanced designs provide more consistent ventilation over time, more uniform ventilation among rooms, and source control measures that reduce the air-change requirement.
Although most of the apartments adopt state-of-the-art convenience facilities, since they have become the most popular housing type in Korea, they depend on natural ventilation for HVAC systems, as traditional floor heating systems (Ondol) are used. On the other hand, the indoor environments of the apartments have become more important, because people stay longer in a room and the room environment is polluted, because of various kinds of interior materials. Accordingly, some apartments apply air conditioning systems using AHU and ventilation systems using heat exchangers.
Physico-chemical and microbiological measurements (temperature, humidity, CO2, CO, VOC, bacteria and fungi) were performed on indoor air of three schools near Paris (France). Results of measurements are given and analysed. Indoor air quality is better with mechanical ventilation than in operable windows classrooms. TVOC concentrations are much higher indoors than outdoors.
The Moravian library's atrium in Brno (Czech Republic) is eight stories high. Ventilation is a combination of mechanical supply by nozzles in each gallery and a natural stack effect in the atrium from bottom to top. CFD has been used for design.
CFD calculations and laboratory measurements in a full-scale model were carried out to assess the performance of a full transparent second skin façade intended to equip an office building, composed of very low solar energy transmittance glass, and being v
Field tests and a model allowed to study contaminant concentrations in a single family home in California operating with natural ventilation or with one of six mechanical ventilation systems (cyclic or continuous, multi-point or single-point exhaust). Continuous ventilation appears to be better for contaminant levels control.