The use of high-speed rotary and spray-producing instruments can pose a serious risk indental clinics, by continuously creating a potential harmful contamination of the room. Indoorclimate parameters (temperature, relative humidity) and microbiological airbornecontamination (total bacterial count at 37C, fungal particles) were evaluated in 12 privatedental clinics, partially equipped with air conditioning systems. Carbon dioxide airconcentrations were also measured to evaluate the efficacy of air exchange. Air microbialcounts were highest in the consulting rooms and waiting rooms.
Information is needed about the overall nature of the reasonably foreseeable exposures fromconsumer products, including intended exposures of chemicals released into the air by design(e.g. fragrance materials), and other inhalation, dermal, and oral exposures arising from theuse of consumer products (CPs) in the indoor environment.
On the international level, ISO (International Organization for Standardization), CEN (EuropeanCommittee for Standardization) and ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and AirConditioning Engineers) are writing and reviewing standards relating to the indoor environment on aregular basis.
Modern buildings’ environmental impacts threaten global environmental health. Population growth and increased access to and use of current building technology are not sustainable. People are often not in control of their building environments and, as a re
The knowledge of indoor air humidity in the design phase is important to decide on the appropriate moisture control measures to prevent moisture problems in building components. Because of the uncertain nature of most of the factors affecting the indoor humidity, its accurate prediction in the design phase is not possible. To overcome this problem, the concept of Indoor Climate Classes has been introduced and used in Europe since its early development in the Netherlands in the 1970s up to its recent introduction in a European Standard on the hygrothermal performance of building components.
A comfortable indoor climate environment is necessary for modern buildings and therefore the Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems are widely used. Faults or disturbances are normally unavoidable in the systems and they will lead to more energy consumption or degradation of comfort level of indoor climate. Energy consumption is useful to detect the
This paper is the second part of a study on indoor emission sources models : this part is the compilation and review of 48 methods for parameter estimation.For an useful valid model, estimation of the different parameters of a model must be easy. But the development of methods for parameters estimation is often left for only the development of model, and these models are then not used after their publication.
This paper is a sum up of 32 epidemiological studies (mainly concerning children) having a link between indoor pollutions and respiratory diseases. Data issued from questionnaires and data from environmental measurements from these studies are compared and analysed.
Associations between different characteristics of the dwellings and respiratory symptoms are found. On the other hand, for factors like sociodemographic environment, heating and cooking installations, the impact on respiratory health is inconstant.
This paper is a review of the techniques and equipment used during the last 20 years, to monitor Particulate Matter personal exposures, microenvironment concentrations and the constituants of sampled particulate matter.
The European interdisciplinary group of researchers have reviewed 70 papers and selected 8 studies for their final review. From most studies, no definite conclusions could have been drawn concerning the association between particles matter concentration and health outcomes.
So giving limit values or guidelines for particulate mass or number concentrations in non-industrial indoor environment is not an adequate scientific evidence.