Ocular, nasal, dermal and respiratory symptoms in relation to heating, ventilation, energy conservation and reconstruction of older multi-family houses

This study was carried out in nearly two hundred multi-family buildings, built before 1961, in Stockholm. Three thousand inhabitants answered first a questionnaire on symptoms and personal factors. In parallel energy saving measures and building characteristics were gathered. It appeared that major reconstruction of the interior were associated with an increase of some symptoms.

Material properties, room-climate measurements and building history - an interdisciplinary project to set the conditions of restoration and re-use for the fortress of Kufstein, Tyrol, Austria

For the restoration of the historic fortress of Kufstein, the high humidity problems encountered have required special investigations : the capillary water up-take characteristics of the wall stones and identification of the ventilation deficiencies have been studied.
Results show that a controlled ventilation system may help to reduce the problems associated with humidity and condensation.

System interactions in forced-air heating and cooling systems. Part 2 : continuous fan operation

The purpose of continuous fan operation is to bring in fresh outdoor air to the conditioned space in order to maintain acceptable indoor air quality. Ventilation not only uses more energy, but it also impacts air distribution system efficiency.This is partially due to various system interactions. The objective of this paper is to quantify the impact of continuous fan operation on energy use and distribution efficiency by introducingtwo new parameters: energy use ratio (EUR) and distribution efficiency ratio (DER).

Performance test results for large coupled indoor/outdoor environmental simulator (C-I/O-ES)

This paper provides a summary of the methods and results of performance testing for a coupled Indoor/Outdoor Environmental Simulator (C-I/O-ES). The simulator consists of an IEQ chamber, a climate chamber, and a replaceable separation/test wall assembly. Both chambers have stainless steel interior surfaces and are equipped with independent heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems for simulating indoor and outdoor thermal and air quality conditions, respectively.

Case study of a floor-integrated solution for heating and ventilation in a pre-cast concrete domestic building

The paper describes a system solution developed in Sweden for domestic buildings with pre-cast concrete units where the floor consists of a 0,06 meter thick concrete slab with a framework casted into the slab and a beam. The beams acts as floor beams forming a cavity of about 0,3 meter that are used for plumbing, electric installations and transport of air for heating and ventilation. The air is blown from the cavity into the rooms through narrow slots along the walls. Air for heating is recirculated through a ventilation plant consisting of filter, heating element and a fan.

Energy-efficient multistory apartment building in Moscow

The new perspective technology in building heat supply and climatisation, are given in this paper. The main energy-saving solutions are following: architectural and layout design taking into account the influence of solar radiation and wind direction; high thermal insulation of building envelope and glazing; mechanical supply-and-exhaust ventilation systems for each flat; Ground heat and exhaust air heat recovery for hot water supply; doublepipe heating system for each flat, horizontal, equipped with flat heat meters and thermostatic valves installed at each room heater.

Industrial ventilation in cold climate conditions

Historically, industrial buildings have been simple constructions with no insulation. Ventilation has been natural through openings in the walls and in the roof. Around 1970 we started investigating airflows in large industrial premises by water model studies. This lead to a better understanding of the ventilation airflow patterns in heavy industries. In the following years, the principles were applied in practice. At the present, more than 30 large plants have been designed according to these principles and valuable experience has been gained.

Ceiling heating in new and existing buildings

This paper presents a number of advantages (both practical and thermodynamic) of ceiling heating systems compared to under-floor heating. It is estimated that the heat flux from ceiling heating is approximately the same as under-floor heating: the larger exposed surface of the ceiling, and the lower thermal resistance between the water in the pipes and the ceiling surface, compensate for the lower convective heat flux from the ceiling. Using the same water temperature in the pipes, the total heat flux from ceiling heating will be similar to that of under-floor heating.

Improved heat recovery & air conditioning heat pump - Application in a northern hospital

This paper presents the configuration and some experimental performance data for an improved, custom designed heat recovery & air conditioning retrofitting system, developed for a hospital located in a Canadian cold-climate environment. The two-stage heat recovery system includes a conventional glycol heat exchanger and a prototype of a reversible air-to-air heat pump between the exhaust and the fresh air streams.

CEN/STAR Workshop on HVAC appliances : 50 european experts define prenormative research needs

CEN/STAR establishes needs for co-normative and pre-normative research in support to CEN standardization. A workshop took place in CETIAT (France) on 23-24 january 2003, its aim was to provide an overview of the trends of research and future standardization for HVAC appliances and to define the needs for pre-normative or co-normative research and interaction with standardization works.