On account of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), large proportions of workers suffer from eye and respiratory discomfort or headaches. In a small-scale painting process, efficient ventilation system must be provided for human health. In this study, ventilation characteristics of toluene have been analysed in a room of a small-scale painting process with various exit locations with different suction velocities at the exits.
An analysis of recently published research results is provided, showing that if molds and the different compounds they produce can lead to some health effects (allergies, infections, potential toxicologic effects) when inhalated, these effects occur only for exposures at very high doses. The potential toxicity from indoor air exposures is therefore very low, which allows to consider the term 'toxic mold' as a misnomer.
This article presents how ventilation and air quality in smoking spaces are being treated by ANSI/ASHRAE standard 62, Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality. Historical information is given about environmental tobacco smoke and ventilation requirements in the standard since its first issue in 1973. The status of the 31 addenda to the 1999 version of the standard, some of them being included in the 2001 version, others still being in discussion or in the process to be adopted, is explained. Among them are four smoking-related addenda : 62e, 62g, 62o and 62ag.
This article describes bacteria and viruses usually considered as candidates for biological weapons. It also presents chemical agents that might be used as chemical weapons. It shows how HVAC systems can be designed with safeguards to protect against entry and/or circulation of these agents. It explains how air filtration can provide an additional defense, using HEPA filters, activated carbon filters, antimicrobial treated filters, ultraviolet light emitters or electrostatic air cleaners with UV emitters.
This article describes the various types of fungi (yeasts, molds, mushrooms, ...). It reminds that they are single or multi-cellular non-motile organisms which rely on other organism or environment for nutrients. Fungi can generate spores which can germinate under appropriate conditions (moisture, substrate, temperature) after an extended period during which they remain dormant.
Describes two European research projects on performance criteria for healthy buildings in which TNO Building and Construction Research (The Netherlands) is involved : HOPE (Health optimisation protocol for energy efficient buildings : Prenormative and socio-economic research to create healthy and energy efficient buildings) and PeBBu (Performance based building Thematic Network).
The objective of this paper was to illustrate the potential of the CFD technique to compare the effectiveness of different general ventilation systems in reducing the workers' exposure to styrene vapour in a workroom. . Thanks to the CFD technique predicted airflow velocities and styrene distribution are shown for the 3 different ventilation arrangements at identical planes across the room. And predicted values of styrene concentration at workers'position are given.
European radon research and industry collaboration concerted action (ERRICCA2) is establishing a European scientific led industrial forum aimed at reducing risks to health from radiation (principally radon) in the built environment. It brings together 35 organisations from 20 countries.
A poor ventilation in buildings costs considerable amounts of money for hospitals and businesses.10 % of hospital acquired infections are directly due to an airborne route. The quantity and the quality of air supplied is important but also the way it is introduced into spaces. A change of the Wells Riley equation (establishing a link between the likelihood of infection, the infective agent production rate, the exposure time, the pulmonary and room ventilation rate) is proposed to take into account ventilation eefectiveness.