Risk assessment of formaldehyde in typical office buildings in Taiwan

Field investigations have been conducted for that study in 5 office buildings of Taiwan to assess the risk of formaldehyde exposure for general population.This study demonstrates that the level of formaldehyde emitted from building materials can be affected by climatic conditions such as temperature and relative humidity. Consumers must be protected from exposure and it is urgent to help the industry to develop low emission materials in that part of the world.

The medical relevance of methods to sample indoor air microbial pollution

The aim of the investigation was to evaluate different methods to sample microbial cell wallagents (MCWA) indoors and to relate the results to clinical markers of inflammation amongpersons (n = 27), living in houses with suspected mould problems. Airborne particles weresampled for 8 h or by agitating floor dust. Sedimented particles were collected from floor dust.Analysis was done for endotoxin and (1?3)--D-glucan. Endotoxin was found only in a few ofthe agitated floor dust samples.

Biohygrothermal method for the prediction of mould growth: procedure and health aspects

In buildings growing conditions for mould fungi can occur and cause fungus infestation. Thepossible danger for the occupants of dwellings lies in the production and spreading ofpathogens (disease causing agents). Therefore, consequent measures have to be taken to avoidhealth dangers that result from mould fungi in buildings. A strategy has to be set up thatfocuses on the growth conditions for mould fungi and also considers the complex transientprocesses of building physics.

What indices of indoor air pollution can - and can't - do

This paper is a commentary on comments made by Drs Molhave and Wolkoff regarding indoor air pollution indices presented by the authors in 2003. They make it clear that IAPI attains the following aims : it is easily understood by all stakeholders, it associates well with symptoms, and provides a setting for management of the indoor environment.
Bu this index is a metric of in-office pollution and not a metric of a specific pollutant.

Significance of humidity and temperature on skin and upper airway symptoms

The aim of that study was to assess the impact in an office environment of absolute and relative humidity, temperature and humidification on workers' skin and upper airway symptoms (such as nasal or pharyngeal dryness, eyes problems, congestion). Physical factors associated with symptoms and perceptions were appraised with logistic regression models.

Health risks by microbial cell wall agents indoors

This presentation will review two major microbial cell wall agents (MCWA) - endotoxin and (1->3)-ß-D-glucan - concerning their toxic effects after inhalation and their role for the development of symptoms among persons in buildings with humidity problem.

Experimental study on activities of the virus in low humidity indoor environments

Japanese Building Maintenance Law defines that indoor humidity shall be maintained not lower than40%. But it is sometime very difficult to comply with the law. Indoor air humidifies in office buildingsmostly below 40% especially in wintertime. A request to deregulate the provision arises from HVACindustries. But a question concerning risk to deregulate the lower limit of humidity is arising.According to researches in 1960s, activity levels of influenza virus become higher when indoorrelative humidity becomes lower than 40%.

Health effects of flooding: changes of symptoms, tear film stability and biomarkers in nasal lavage after re-exposure to a damp office building

The aim was to study changes of symptoms and signs in an office exposed to flooding fromheavy rain. All 18 workers participated in medical investigations in January 1998. Thesubjects were first investigated on a Monday in a reference building and then all moved backand were reinvestigated in a damp building after 2 days of exposure.

Dampness in dwellings and sick building symptoms among adults: a crosssectional study on 8918 Swedish homes

Moisture-related indicators indoors are, e.g. visible mould and damp spots, condensation onthe inside of window panes, detached floor covering materials, flooding and bad odours. Suchindicators are frequently found and are reported to appear in 25-80% of the buildingsworldwide (Bornehag et al., 2001). Dampness has also been identified as a major risk factorfor, e.g. respiratory symptoms such as asthma, cough and wheezing among both children andadults (Bornehag et al., 2001).

Current asthma and respiratory symptoms among pupils in Shanghai schools, in relation to indoor mould growth and exposure to traffic exhausts in the schools

We measured the temperature, relative air humidity (RH), carbon dioxide (CO2), ozone (O3),nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and formaldehyde levels in 30 classrooms in 10 schools in Shanghai.The pupils received a questionnaire; 1414 participated (99%). The temperature was 13-21C,and RH was 36-82%. The 1000 ppm CO2 level was exceeded in 45% of the classrooms.Indoor formaldehyde was 3-20 g/m3. The concentration of O3 was low, both indoors (