Defensive filtration

This article describes bacteria and viruses usually considered as candidates for biological weapons. It also presents chemical agents that might be used as chemical weapons. It shows how HVAC systems can be designed with safeguards to protect against entry and/or circulation of these agents. It explains how air filtration can provide an additional defense, using HEPA filters, activated carbon filters, antimicrobial treated filters, ultraviolet light emitters or electrostatic air cleaners with UV emitters.

The fundamental of fungi

This article describes the various types of fungi (yeasts, molds, mushrooms, ...). It reminds that they are single or multi-cellular non-motile organisms which rely on other organism or environment for nutrients. Fungi can generate spores which can germinate under appropriate conditions (moisture, substrate, temperature) after an extended period during which they remain dormant.

Two European projects on performance criteria for healthy buildings

Describes two European research projects on performance criteria for healthy buildings in which TNO Building and Construction Research (The Netherlands) is involved : HOPE (Health optimisation protocol for energy efficient buildings : Prenormative and socio-economic research to create healthy and energy efficient buildings) and PeBBu (Performance based building Thematic Network).

The right to healthy indoor air

This document results from a Working Group set up by the World Health Organization. It formulates a set of statements on the right to healthy indoor air.

Modelling the effectiveness of styrene vapour removal during boat building operations

The objective of this paper was to illustrate the potential of the CFD technique to compare the effectiveness of different general ventilation systems in reducing the workers' exposure to styrene vapour in a workroom. . Thanks to the CFD technique predicted airflow velocities and styrene distribution are shown for the 3 different ventilation arrangements at identical planes across the room. And predicted values of styrene concentration at workers'position are given.

European radon research and industry collaboration concerted action

European radon research and industry collaboration concerted action (ERRICCA2) is establishing a European scientific led industrial forum aimed at reducing risks to health from radiation (principally radon) in the built environment. It brings together 35 organisations from 20 countries.

Quantification of the benefits of displacement ventilation in airborne disease control

A poor ventilation in buildings costs considerable amounts of money for hospitals and businesses.10 % of hospital acquired infections are directly due to an airborne route. The quantity and the quality of air supplied is important but also the way it is introduced into spaces. A change of the Wells Riley equation (establishing a link between the likelihood of infection, the infective agent production rate, the exposure time, the pulmonary and room ventilation rate) is proposed to take into account ventilation eefectiveness.

Effects on health related symptoms of carpet removal and ventilation improvement in eleven schools - a controlled intervention study

An intervention study was carried out in eleven elementary schools in Trondheim, Norway. Three schools with poor ventilation standard, four schools with carpets, and four reference schools participated. Carpets were replaced by vinyl flooring and the poor ventilation systems were upgraded. Altogether 1100 children aged twelve to thirteen years and 400 teachers were all included in the study. The baseline registration of health related symptoms was performed during January/February 1997. The questionnaires were repeated, after the interventions, in February 1998 and 1999.

Ventilation and health

At first, this paper deals with the history of indoor environment and ventilation , with the evidence that a good IAQ is essential for public health. An inadequate ventilation plays a major role on the global burden of allergies, airways infections. The more complex the HVAC system is, the more liable it is to fail (if improper maintenance) sothe non-industrial indoor environment is the most important environment from a human health perspective.

Evaluation of air ducts interior liners with and without biocide coating in terms of extent of fungal growth under high humidity, water condensation and soiling conditions

Fiberglass duct interior liners with and without biocides were submitted in an environmental chamber during 15 days to high air humidities, moisture and nutrient. Conclusion is that liners with biocide reduce microbial growth under high humidity as long as they remain dirt free and dry. Impermeable smooth liners show better performance than liners with porous or rough surface.