Following a comprehensive review of research over the 150-year history of mechanical ventilation, the recent European Multidisciplinary Scientific Consensus Meeting (EUROVEN) considered that only 20 studies relating ventilation (i.e. outside air supply rate per person) to human response were conclusive. From them, a small number of conclusions were drawn, and some very large gaps in our knowledge of this important area of research were identified. Taking these as the starting point, this paper formulates a strategy for evaluating IAQ effects on people.
A questionnaire study (on ventilation, surface materials, heating and cooling) was performed on 3562 employees working in 32 buildings without previously known indoor air problems.The associations between symptom prevalence and building characteristics are reported in this paper.
Scientific tools are used to get insights into the processes that affect the exposure assessment : these are the exposure models. This paper aims at reviewing the process and methodology of estimating inhalation exposure to particulate matter (PM) using various types of models.Indirect type, direct type and stochastical models are discussed in this paper.
This study was carried out in nearly two hundred multi-family buildings, built before 1961, in Stockholm. Three thousand inhabitants answered first a questionnaire on symptoms and personal factors. In parallel energy saving measures and building characteristics were gathered. It appeared that major reconstruction of the interior were associated with an increase of some symptoms.
This paper is a sum up of 32 epidemiological studies (mainly concerning children) having a link between indoor pollutions and respiratory diseases. Data issued from questionnaires and data from environmental measurements from these studies are compared and analysed.
Associations between different characteristics of the dwellings and respiratory symptoms are found. On the other hand, for factors like sociodemographic environment, heating and cooking installations, the impact on respiratory health is inconstant.
The European interdisciplinary group of researchers have reviewed 70 papers and selected 8 studies for their final review. From most studies, no definite conclusions could have been drawn concerning the association between particles matter concentration and health outcomes.
So giving limit values or guidelines for particulate mass or number concentrations in non-industrial indoor environment is not an adequate scientific evidence.
This paper gives an overview of sources of indoor particulate matter (PM) and its effects on occupants. Studies indicate that outdoor PM contributes to indoor PM, yet a large fractionof indoor PM is generated indoors. The ratio of indoor to outdoor PM concentrations (I/O ratio) varies substantially due to different indoor conditions and PM spatial distributions.Real-time investigation using multiple point sampling technique is needed for better understanding of PM spatial distribution.
In low energy dwellings the ventilation heat losses are significant. Reduction of these heat losses can be achieved by introducing demand controlled ventilation i.e. ventilation rates are set below normal level when rooms are no longer occupied. This paper outlines preliminary results on energy conservation and health effects in relation to demand controlled ventilation in a low-energy house.
Basic requirements for healthy environments were well established before 1850 and implemented during the next 100 years as a vital condition for the remarkable improvements of general health and living standard in our welfare states.It is sad to observe that so much knowledge and wisdom seems to have evaporated during the last 50 years !
This paper describes a study of reduced performance of mechanical exhaust systems in 42 Dutch houses after several years of operation. It also describes the effect of reduced ventilation on air quality and the perception and use of the ventilation system by residents. The guanine contents of dust samples taken from the sleeping room were determined to assess the risk of allergy.