Productivity and fatigue

For a long time in the history of the productivity study, the effects of environmental factors onlyon the performance had been focused. However, previous studies on the impact of theenvironment upon performance of mental tasks generally conclude that productivity research issomewhat confusing because the results are sometimes conflicting. In the controlled chamber,subjects may be highly motivated for a short time period, so it is very difficult to find thedifference of performances. In this paper, we introduce a second parameter : fatigue. Threesubjective experiments are reported.

Healthy buildings from science to practice

The activities of indoor environmental research have increased significantly since the firstenergy crisis of the early 1970s. Since then, research has produced many significant resultsthat have already been put into practice. These include the health effects and prevention ofenvironmental pollution by tobacco smoke, formaldehyde, radon, asbestos, etc. The healthrisks of these contaminants have been verified, and appropriate measures have been taken bythe authorities, as well as by the building industry and product manufacturers.

Evaluating IAQ effects on people

Following a comprehensive review of research over the 150-year history of mechanical ventilation, the recent European Multidisciplinary Scientific Consensus Meeting (EUROVEN) considered that only 20 studies relating ventilation (i.e. outside air supply rate per person) to human response were conclusive. From them, a small number of conclusions were drawn, and some very large gaps in our knowledge of this important area of research were identified. Taking these as the starting point, this paper formulates a strategy for evaluating IAQ effects on people.

Symptoms prevalence among office employees and associations to building characteristics

A questionnaire study (on ventilation, surface materials, heating and cooling) was performed on 3562 employees working in 32 buildings without previously known indoor air problems.The associations between symptom prevalence and building characteristics are reported in this paper.

Modeling exposure to particulate matter

Scientific tools are used to get insights into the processes that affect the exposure assessment : these are the exposure models. This paper aims at reviewing the process and methodology of estimating inhalation exposure to particulate matter (PM) using various types of models.Indirect type, direct type and stochastical models are discussed in this paper.

Ocular, nasal, dermal and respiratory symptoms in relation to heating, ventilation, energy conservation and reconstruction of older multi-family houses

This study was carried out in nearly two hundred multi-family buildings, built before 1961, in Stockholm. Three thousand inhabitants answered first a questionnaire on symptoms and personal factors. In parallel energy saving measures and building characteristics were gathered. It appeared that major reconstruction of the interior were associated with an increase of some symptoms.

How to describe indoor environment in epidemiological study dealing with respiratory diseases ?

This paper is a sum up of 32 epidemiological studies (mainly concerning children) having a link between indoor pollutions and respiratory diseases. Data issued from questionnaires and data from environmental measurements from these studies are compared and analysed.
Associations between different characteristics of the dwellings and respiratory symptoms are found. On the other hand, for factors like sociodemographic environment, heating and cooking installations, the impact on respiratory health is inconstant.

"Europart" Airborne particles in the indoor environment. European interdisciplinary review of scientific evidence on associations between exposure to particles in buildings and health effects.

The European interdisciplinary group of researchers have reviewed 70 papers and selected 8 studies for their final review. From most studies, no definite conclusions could have been drawn concerning the association between particles matter concentration and health outcomes.
So giving limit values or guidelines for particulate mass or number concentrations in non-industrial indoor environment is not an adequate scientific evidence.

An overview of particulate matter in indoor environments : sources and effects

This paper gives an overview of sources of indoor particulate matter (PM) and its effects on occupants. Studies indicate that outdoor PM contributes to indoor PM, yet a large fractionof indoor PM is generated indoors. The ratio of indoor to outdoor PM concentrations (I/O ratio) varies substantially due to different indoor conditions and PM spatial distributions.Real-time investigation using multiple point sampling technique is needed for better understanding of PM spatial distribution.

Demand controlled ventilation in a low-energy house

In low energy dwellings the ventilation heat losses are significant. Reduction of these heat losses can be achieved by introducing demand controlled ventilation i.e. ventilation rates are set below normal level when rooms are no longer occupied. This paper outlines preliminary results on energy conservation and health effects in relation to demand controlled ventilation in a low-energy house.