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energy consumption

Guidance and tools for chilled ceilings combined with a wet cooling tower

The combination of an open wet cooling tower with chilled ceilings is a CFC free, cheap and low energy cooling solution. The efficiency of this alternative to mechanical cooling is very dependent on climate. There is a need for specific tools to help designers to size the system and to estimate its energy and water consumption. A building simulation tool, called ConsoClim, has been used to predict the performance of this system for different French climatic locations, thermal inertia, internal loads and solar gains.

Performance of heating systems from the point of energy consumption and thermal comfort in dwellings

The quality of indoor environment in dwellings is provided by physical properties of building constructions and by operation of HVAC-systems. From the point of view of comfort, energy and economy as well as HVAC-system are designed and operated to maintain an acceptable indoor climate, i.e. an acceptable air quality and thermal environment play the key role in dwellings.

Energy and indoor climate in Belgian offices : results of a survey

About 100 office buildings in the Flanders and Brussels regions have been subject to a surveyof energy aspects and indoor climate parameters. Building characteristics and energy use havebeen mapped for all buildings; for 48 of them a database has been built containing buildingand room dimensions, materials used for the building shell, windows, glazing, solar shading,occupancy, equipment characteristics (heating, ventilation, cooling, lighting, office equipment.

Integration of high environmental quality comfort requirements during the retrofitting of educational buildings.

A important part of educational buildings must be retrofitted in many European countries, in the next years, for historical and demographic reasons. These retrofittings must be carried out with a limitation of energy consumption and a better indoor comfort. In this context, Annex 36 of International Energy Agency aims at promoting energy efficient measurements of educational buildings in the retrofitting process. In the same time, in France, decision makers want to integrate high environmental quality comfort requirements.

The potential for natural and hybrid cooling strategies to reduce cooling energy consumption in the United States

The aim of this study was to define whether energy savings and comfortable conditions are achievable along with a reduction or even suppression of the mechanical cooling systems.Three different cooling systems (mechanical standard air conditioning, hybrid cooling, mechanical ventilation cooling) were simulated for a typical US office space under 40 different US climatic data, to calculate energy consumptions.

Real-time determination of optimal indoor-air condition for thermal comfort, air quality and efficient energy usage

This paper describes a method for the determination of optimal indoor conditions, using three parameter indexes: PMV (predicted mean vote) for thermal comfort, CO2 concentration for indoor air quality and cooling/heating load for efficient use of energy. A performance index of the HVAC system is calculating by adding square errors between actual and desired values. It is then minimized to find optimal indoor air conditions.

Analysis of the underfloor air distribution system : thermal comfort and energy consumption

That paper presents the results of a thermal comfort evaluation research in a brazilian office building : the measurements show that an underfloor air distribution system can provide comfortable conditions for both sitting and standing occupants along with a reduction of the energy consumption .

Environmental impact and life cycle assessment of heating and air conditioning systems.

Proposed an alternative method to the LCA, the so-called Eco-Indicator, intended to tackle the total environmental impact on a number of different levels (e.g. materials, energy, waste, etc). It is based on a weighting method, and only a single score for the total environmental impact is calculated. It can be used to optimise heating and cooling systems.

Energy consumption and CO2 emission due to HVAC in commercial buildings.

Describes part of a global study on carbon dioxide emission associated with electricity consumption in Belgium. Two commercial buildings were the subject of a simulation. HVAC energy consumption and corresponding CO2 emission were calculated after an identification of the heating and cooling demands. It was found that they are strongly dependant on occupancy rates, and coexist throughout the year.

Retrofitting methods to evaluate energy consumption in existing buildings with few data. Application with a commercial building in Lyon.

Evaluates simple methods for the prediction of energy consumption or fault detection as a result of old equipment in a commercial building in Lyon, France. The correlation between electricity consumption and external temperature was analysed.