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energy consumption

Comparison of energy consumption in buildings with demand controlled ventilation and conventional CAV

A number of computer simulation case studies have been conducted with the objective of investigating the potential for energy savings in buildings with variable air volume (VAV) systems and demand controlled ventilation (DCV), compared to buildings with conventional constant air volume (CAV) ventilation systems. The simulation systems have been modelled on a modular form, they are generally very detailed and comprehensive, and they have shown to be able to provide very realistic results compared to real world conditions.

Air-distribution system analysis - Air filter associated fan energy consumption in variable air volume systems

The paper describes three methods for determination of the fan energy consumption associated to air filter : the hourly method (calculation of the hourly fan power), the segment method (lifespan filter-associated fan energy), the BIN method (estimation of annual filter-associated fan energy). etailed filter installing date and detailed hourly AHU system simulation.
These methods allow in particular to estimate the filter-associated fan energy consumption and the life-cycle cost of filters.

Guidance and tools for chilled ceilings combined with a wet cooling tower

The combination of an open wet cooling tower with chilled ceilings is a CFC free, cheap and low energy cooling solution. The efficiency of this alternative to mechanical cooling is very dependent on climate. There is a need for specific tools to help designers to size the system and to estimate its energy and water consumption. A building simulation tool, called ConsoClim, has been used to predict the performance of this system for different French climatic locations, thermal inertia, internal loads and solar gains.

Performance of heating systems from the point of energy consumption and thermal comfort in dwellings

The quality of indoor environment in dwellings is provided by physical properties of building constructions and by operation of HVAC-systems. From the point of view of comfort, energy and economy as well as HVAC-system are designed and operated to maintain an acceptable indoor climate, i.e. an acceptable air quality and thermal environment play the key role in dwellings.

Energy and indoor climate in Belgian offices : results of a survey

About 100 office buildings in the Flanders and Brussels regions have been subject to a surveyof energy aspects and indoor climate parameters. Building characteristics and energy use havebeen mapped for all buildings; for 48 of them a database has been built containing buildingand room dimensions, materials used for the building shell, windows, glazing, solar shading,occupancy, equipment characteristics (heating, ventilation, cooling, lighting, office equipment.

Integration of high environmental quality comfort requirements during the retrofitting of educational buildings.

A important part of educational buildings must be retrofitted in many European countries, in the next years, for historical and demographic reasons. These retrofittings must be carried out with a limitation of energy consumption and a better indoor comfort. In this context, Annex 36 of International Energy Agency aims at promoting energy efficient measurements of educational buildings in the retrofitting process. In the same time, in France, decision makers want to integrate high environmental quality comfort requirements.

The potential for natural and hybrid cooling strategies to reduce cooling energy consumption in the United States

The aim of this study was to define whether energy savings and comfortable conditions are achievable along with a reduction or even suppression of the mechanical cooling systems.Three different cooling systems (mechanical standard air conditioning, hybrid cooling, mechanical ventilation cooling) were simulated for a typical US office space under 40 different US climatic data, to calculate energy consumptions.

Real-time determination of optimal indoor-air condition for thermal comfort, air quality and efficient energy usage

This paper describes a method for the determination of optimal indoor conditions, using three parameter indexes: PMV (predicted mean vote) for thermal comfort, CO2 concentration for indoor air quality and cooling/heating load for efficient use of energy. A performance index of the HVAC system is calculating by adding square errors between actual and desired values. It is then minimized to find optimal indoor air conditions.

Analysis of the underfloor air distribution system : thermal comfort and energy consumption

That paper presents the results of a thermal comfort evaluation research in a brazilian office building : the measurements show that an underfloor air distribution system can provide comfortable conditions for both sitting and standing occupants along with a reduction of the energy consumption .

Environmental impact and life cycle assessment of heating and air conditioning systems.

Proposed an alternative method to the LCA, the so-called Eco-Indicator, intended to tackle the total environmental impact on a number of different levels (e.g. materials, energy, waste, etc). It is based on a weighting method, and only a single score for the total environmental impact is calculated. It can be used to optimise heating and cooling systems.

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