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energy consumption

A stochastic approach to thermal comfort - Occupant behavior and energy use in buildings

This paper presents the results of surveys of the use of simple controls opening of windows, the closing of window blinds, and the use of lighting, heaters, and fans by building occupants. Information is also presented on the use of air conditioning in mixed-mode buildings. The surveys were conducted in the UK, Pakistan, and throughout Europe. The data are analyzed to show how the use of each control varies with outdoor temperature. The paper discusses the application
of such results to the simulation of occupied buildings.

Study of typical meteorological years and their effect on building energy and renewable energy simulations

This paper investigates the generation of typical meteorological years (TMYs) and example weather years (EWYs) for Hong Kong, and studies their effects on the simulation results of the performance of building energy and renewable energy systems, i.e., solar and wind energy systems. According to various methodologies, different TMYs and EWYs were calculated using Hong Kongs weather data from the past 22 years. The results were used for a building energy simulation and for a

Interior air quality, energy and productivity

Fresh air has a very important role in indoor air quality.This study aims at quantifying the costs and the gains of an increase of the ventilation rate, in an office building. Results show that a big increase of the ventilation rate leads to an increase of the installation costs, but to no change of the energy costs. The additional costs may be paid back quickly due to the productivity improvement.

HVAC systems energy comparison for an office building

The use of different HVAC system types for office buildings has been analysed within the European funded project EECCAC. This paper presents comments on 7 analysed HVAC system types.Energy performance and consumption are studied in depth (electric equipment, lighting, cooling, heating, fans and pumps)

Building energy labelling in Spain (Calener), technical basis

The European Community SAVE directive 76/93 makes mandatory for member states to implement an action called Energy Labelling of buildings. The work has been divided in two phases, the first one deals with Officially protected buildings and the second one called CALENER that includes all kinds of buildings.
This Energy Labelling should consist of a description of the energy characteristics and some information about energy efficiency. Its aim is to reduce CO2 emission by means of a parallel reduction in energy consumption.

Improved building energy consumption with the help of modern ICT

Climate change is a long term battle that involves the whole international community. The need for better energy efficiency is obvious. The energy efficiency of the existing building stock must be improved. Thanks to Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) a lot of possibilities for the development of new type applications and services are present. Internet will be the main platform for the development.

Hybrid model for building performance diagnosis and optimal control

This paper proposes a new hybrid model for automatic diagnostics and optimal supervisory control. Detailed physical parameters represent half of the model and identified parameters describe another half. That hybrid model can be used to predict accurately the cooling and heating energy consumption of buildings in a wide range of operation conditions.

Approach for the improvement of energy performance of a stock of buildings

This paper is a sum-up of the work performed by CSTB, ADEME and the Ministry of Equipement in France to improve the energy performance of the huge ministry stock of buildings (10 000 buildings of different size and uses). The objective of the project was to evaluate the performance of the buildings and to improve it in close work with the end-users.

Analysis of the impact of CO2-Based demand-controlled ventilation strategies on energy consumption

This paper presents an integrated IAQ/HVAC simulation environment that can model the impact of contaminant-based demand-controlled ventilation (DCV) strategies on both indoor air quality and HVAC system energy use for multizone buildings. The predictions of the integrated IAQ/HVAC simulation environment are first validated against experimental data obtained from laboratory testing. Then the simulation environment is used to investigate the performance of three ventilation control strategies, namely: one conventional control using fixed-position for outside air damper and two

A Study of a Mixed Mode Environment in 25 Cellular Offices at the University of Sydney

Twenty five cellular offices in the Wilkinson Building at the University of Sydney, Australia are ventilated through operable windows and doors and have been retrofitted with a supplementary reverse cycle cooling/heating system with an occupant controlled fancoil unit in each room. Energy consumption and occupancy and temperature status of rooms have been monitored since the system was commissioned at the end of 1997.

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