Overheating assessment of energy renovations

In many post-occupancy studies of renovated houses elevated temperatures have been documented. This article presents in which situations overheating need to be addressed and which renovation measures are causing this need. The analysis contains representative houses from central and north Europe. Both dynamic and static overheating assessment criteria are used.

40 Years of Modeling Airflows

The modelling of air flows to investigate indoor air quality and energy issues has been a topic at the AIVC for all of its 40 years. Models have been developed that range in complexity from single-zone algebraic expressions that can be calculated by hand to complex multi-zone approaches that integrate contaminant transport and other functions.

Evolution of ventilation strategies in air-conditioned buildings in Singapore – IAQ and Energy perspectives

Situated 1º North of the equator, Singapore has a year-round hot and humid climate with temperatures in the range of 25 and 32º C and relative humidity around 70%.  In view of these environmental conditions, there is really no need for “Heating (or simply “H”) in the traditional Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) terminology.  Consequently, the term Air-Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation (ACMV) is used in the local industry.

An argument for a reality check in the ventilation industry: We still have an energy crisis, in practice, and are not generally, in practice, achieving better indoor climate

In 2017 the Danish Building and Property Agency started a project titled “Avoiding energy waste in ventilation systems” by tracking the actual energy use in a sample of their 4 million m2 portfolio of buildings through on-line energy management tools. The project is not complete, but the key preliminary findings  described in this paper are: 

Comparative life-cycle assessment of constant air volume, variable air volume and active climate beam systems for a Swedish office building

Energy use in buildings has a significant influence on the global energy demand and environmental impacts. Among all building systems, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems are the most energy-intensive in terms of their total energy requirements. The production and operation of HVAC systems have a significant impact on the environment. These systems are also among the largest consumers of natural resources and materials in the building sector.

Thermal comfort, IAQ and Energy use in Bedrooms

The research question of this report is “Is it possible to save energy by lowering the bedroom temperatures in winter”. In this paper first the literature on optimum sleeping temperatures is investigated. Then bedroom temperatures and CO2 levels in a cold week in March 2018 are investigated in 16 bedrooms of students of the Master course Technoledge Climate Desing in 2017-2018 of the faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment of the Delft University of Technology. This study shows that it must be possible to save energy by lowering the bedroom temperature in winter.

Measured and Simulated Energy Savings and Comfort Improvement of a Smart Residential Ventilation Control Strategy: Preliminary Results for North America and Europe

Mechanical ventilation is vital in modern homes to insure adequate indoor air quality. However, builders, homeowners and policy makers may perceive best practice as a risk, especially if invoked during peak outdoor thermal conditions which may compromise comfort and energy use. In North America, ASHRAE Standard 62.2- 2016 defines best practice, yet ventilation code specifications vary internationally.

Rethinking Occupancy-Based Ventilation Controls

Traditionally, occupancy-based ventilation controls have only ventilated when occupants are present – usually based on measurements of CO2 and/or humidity.  These indictors may be fine for pollutants released directly by occupants, such as bioeffluents, or by their activities, such as cooking and cleaning. However, they do not account for pollutants not associated with occupancy, such as formaldehyde from building materials and furnishings.

A review of performance-based approaches to residential smart ventilation

In order to better address energy and indoor air quality issues, ventilation needs to become smarter. A key smart ventilation concept is to use controls to ventilate more at times it provides either an energy or IAQ advantage (or both) and less when it provides a disadvantage. This would be done in a manner that provides improved home energy and IAQ performance, relative to a “dumb” base case. This paper highlights that a favourable context exists in many countries, with regulations and standards proposing “performance-based approaches”.