Gives results of a statistical survey of energy consumption in British government buildings. Suggests one reason for high consumption may be excessive ventilation. Reports field trial of the effect of reducing natural ventilation in a London office building. Window frames were sealed with a rubber mastic, giving an annual fuel saving of 22%. Finds measure was highly cost effective with a payback period of less than three years.< Discusses problem of heat loss through large doors in hangars and workshops.
Notes that some of the main contributors to excessive ventilation in industrial buildings are external doors and loading bays. Discusses the choice of industrial doors to minimise energy loss. Discusses flexible doors, strip doors, loading bays, air curtains and door sealing.
Measurements have been made of the air-leakage rates through structural components of conventional metal-panel and concrete buildings which may serve as containment for nuclear reactors. The component measurements included structural penetrations such as doors and louvers as well as materials such as caulking compounds, gaskets, and paints. Specimens were sealed inside of test vessels.
States that concern for weathertightness requirements for windows has increased recently. Discusses standard methods for testing air leakage and rain penetration of windows. Illustrates some general findings on air leakage. Discusses relationship between air leakage and rain penetration. Outlines characteristics of leakage through doors.
Studies influence on energy loss of an air curtain installed at building entrance. The energy loss consists of transmission loss and ventilation losses caused by stack effect, pressure difference due to wind, direct wind on the entrance and differences in the specific gravity of inside and outside air. Gives an example of calculated energy loss at the entrance of a simulated department store. Outlines principles and types of air curtain.
The use in metropolitan cities of increasing numbers of skyscrapers in which stack effects are large and entrance traffic heavy calls for a better design of entrance for controlling both infiltration and traffic. Analyses the causes of infiltration, discusses the effect of various parameters, presents design charts for estimating heating and air conditioning loads through swinging-door and revolving-door entrances. Introduces a new design of entrance, the travelling entrance-way, and gives approximate method for calculation of air infiltration through it.
Reports a project to assess the value of weatherstripping windows and doors in a 30-year old home. Describes house and retrofitting technique using stainless steel weatherstrips. Air infiltration rates before and after retrofit were measured using three independent methods, tracer gas dilution using SF6,pressurization/depressurization for the whole house and depressurization of individual windows. Finds that air-change-rate for the whole house was reduced by 10-14.7%giving a predicted reduction of 15.5% for a complete retrofit which would result in an energy saving of 4-6%.
Weatherstrip for windows and doors were studied by full-scale tests with regard to airtightness, closing force and ageing properties. Tubular strips provided the highest degree of airtightness in both windows and doors, while angle strips were only slightly inferior in performance. The leakage of air was found to be considerably greater for strips of expanded and foam plastics and fibre strips. For tubular strips of small material thickness and for angle strips, the closing force in doors was low.
Treats report investigating results of door opening in terms of energy loss and changes to indoor climate. In 3 sections. Treats: 1) general regulations and manufacturing standards and relevant swedish building regulations concerning airtightness, thermal insulation and functional aspects. 2) Flow of air under different conditions such as pressure differences caused by variations in temperatures and wind. 3) Describes laboratory experiments using 1:10 scale fluid model.
Describes plan to retrofit 25 townhouses at Twin Rivers evaluating retrofits by instrumenting each house to record energy consumption, temperature, window and door opening and furnace operation. Aim of the first round of retrofits was a payback period of no more than three years. Describes fourretrofits A,B,C and D. A,C and D improved attic and cellar insulation and insulated the heating system. B aimed to limitthe amount of air infiltration from cracks around doors and windows by weatherstripping. Early results showed gas savings of the order of 25% and electrical savings of 10%