Winter infiltration through swinging-door entrances in multi-storey buildings.

BSTRACT Describes test made to determine air flow through entrances to a multi-storey building. Temperature and pressure differences across entrances and outside wind speed were recorded and flow through doors studied using laboratory scale models. 

Air leakage testing.

The significance of air tightness on building performance and the factors affecting the air leakage performance of the building enclosure are discussed. the ability of the ASTM standard air leakage test method to check the quality of design and manufacture of factory-assembled walls, windows and doors as well as the inability of the method to provide the building designer with quantitative air leakage data for calculating heating and cooling loads and designing smoke control means is also discussed.

Air leakage through window joints Zur Luftdurchlassigkeit von Fensterfugen

According to TGL standard 112-0319, the demand of heat required for ventilating a building essentially depends on the passage of air through its window and door joints. This varies to a great extent. The losses of thermal energy can be reduced substantially by tolerance specifications for joint dimensions. Such tolerances will result in permissible resistance coefficients for different types of windows. Depending on thehygienic requirements suitable selection is then possible within a narrow margin of error.

Air infiltration through revolving doors.

Describes experiments made to determine the air infiltration rate through revolving doors. Estimates infiltration by combining air leakage past the door seals with infiltration caused by the revolving of the door. Finds that air exchange depends on door speed and temperature differential and somewhat on wind and indoor air velocities. Gives flow past the door seals as function of indoor -outdoor pressure differential and flow related to door movement for a motor- driven revolving door and for a manually operated door for traffic rates up to 2000 people per hour.

Infiltration characteristics of entrance doors

Examines air flow into air-conditioned buildings caused by opened external doors in summer. Firstly the wind velocity through open doorways was measured using puffs of smoke inentrance hallways, finding that velocities varied from 104 ft/min to 350 ft/min with a mean of 265 ft/mins. Then tests were made on the air inflow when a swing door was opened and closed. Finally tests were made of the air flow due to operating revolving doors. Results for various types of entrances are displayed in a table.

Thermal performance of wood windows and doors

Reports of tests on wood windows and doors to determine their thermal performance with and without wind. Additional tests to determine air infiltration effects were made and concludes that air infiltration has very small effect at low pressure differentials. Notes discrepancies between test results and ASHRAE design values especially when a 15m.p.h. wind was present. Recommends development of uniform testing and evaluation methods.

Details of the first-round retrofits at Twin Rivers

Details the retrofits at Twin Rivers, grouped into packages A,B, C and D. A,B and D reduced heat flow through attic and basement. B limits the amount of air infiltration from crack openings, especially round windows and doors, by the addition of Vinyl foam weatherstrips, caulking of window and door frames and adjustment of ill-fitting casements.

Weatherstripping windows and doors. Calfeutrement de fenetres et des portes

Describes different types of weatherstrips and reports ageing and deformation test on strips and tests on air tightness and closing force. Concludes that tubular strips provided the highest degree of airtightness in both windows and doors, while angle strips were only slightly inferior in performance. Air leakage was considerably greater for strips of expanded and foam plastics and fibre strips. Tests on ageing properties indicated that special rubber mixtures such as silicone rubber and epdm were preferable to p.v.c.

Determination of heat losses due to infiltration. Ermittlung des Luftungswarmebedarfes

Describes a diagram from which heat losses due to infiltration according to German standard DIN 4701 can be obtained, as well as rate of air infiltration per unit length of crack. By considering several factors the method can be generalised for the case of several windows and doors of varying quality of fit. The method is therefore useful for both the approximate and the accurate calculation of infiltration heat losses.

Measurement of air leakage characteristics of house enclosures.

Reports results of series of tests on 6 single-family houses to determine rates of overall leakage through windows, doors, walls and ceilings. Uses vane- axial fan to reduce pressures inside house and measure flowrate and resultant pressure differences across house enclosure. Purpose of tests was to assist in eliminating rates of air infiltration in houses.