Outlines the fundamentals of insulation and airtightness, proper air quality, and ventilation. Presents details of design and construction for walls, roofs, foundations, windows, and air-vapour barriers, as well as discussions of ventilation systems, heating systems, appliances and methods of testing and evaluation. One of the appendices gives weather data for selected US and Canadian cities. Aims to be accessible to the interested layperson or homeowner.
Air tightness results for 40 New Zealand timber frame houses of varying age and construction detail are given. The steady pressure method was used at 6-9 indoor-outdoor pressure differences in the range 10-150 Pa. The data is presented in four ways: 1. air changes per hour at 50 Pa, 2. the coefficient and exponent of a generalized leakage function, 3. the leakage rate per unit shell area at 50 Pa, and 4. the equivalent leakage area at 50 Pa. Houses in the 0-5 and 6-20 year age groups were not significantly different in terms of air tightness.
Investigates the generation of pollutants from unvented convective and radiant kerosene heaters in a residence over a 3 month period. The measured concentrations of carbon monoxide were low. However, under the conditions of use which were studied concentrations of SO2, NO, NO2, and CO2 reached or exceeded levels recommended for indoor air. Further, it was demonstrated that using a semi-open door to provide ventilation did not reduce concentrations of pollutants to acceptable levels.
Increased attention to the reduction of energy consumption in buildings and greater awareness of the need to maintain acceptable standards of indoor air quality have led to the development of new or revised standards of building airtightness and ventilation requirements. In this review of the existing standards of twelve countries, an attempt has been made to compare their main features and criteria. In many cases, direct comparison is not possible because of different ways of expressing the significant parameters.
The main objectives are 1) the collection, processing and evaluation of leakage data for opening doors and windows, obtained from certifications or tests, 2) evaluation of the influence of building technologies and component materials on leakage, 3) experimental evaluation of the reasons for the choice of wall/frame combination and of the relative components and 4) experimental evaluation of the correlation between air leakage and sound insulation in order to define new methods of acoustic measurement of air leakage for components after installation.
To update the National Association of Home Builders Thermal Performance Guidelines, models were developed, representative of the new houses being constructed in each American state. The models define the number and types of windows and doors,
Discusses the advantages of reducing air infiltration in industrial buildings in terms of energy conservation. States that heat loss due to infiltration is often underestimated or ignored as it is difficult to measure. Concentrates ondoorways as a major source of infiltration, and shows that the type of door used needs to match the requirements of the entrance, such as type and size of vehicle passing etc. Decribes a range of doors suitable for different conditions.
States that draughtproofing offers the shortest payback period of any form of energy conservation. Describes sources of draughts in industrial buildings, including entrance doors, and how heat losses through these can be minimized. Discusses recent developments in the domestic market which have encouraged weatherstripping. Briefly reviews different types of weatherstrip materials and how they should be applied.
Describes several types of door closing or air containment devices for use in industrial buildings, including automatic doors, flexible doors and air curtains. Discusses various forms of air curtain and lists factors that need considering when installing one, such as geographical location, size of door, use of premises, tightness of building etc.
Measures air exchange across open cold store doors using an anemometer and by tracer decay methods. Anemometer results show that an empirical factor of 0.68 should be applied to the predictive equation by Tamm. Observes a further reduction in air change rate (about 47% reduction) due to imperfect mixing of the air. Air curtains reduce infiltration by about 75-80% and plastic curtains by approx. 93%. Forklift traffic and internal circulation fans also affect air change rate.