States that windows and doors are the biggest source of energy loss in a house. This happens by air infiltration, conduction and radiation. Covers ways of cutting these energy losses to a minimum, including weatherstripping, installing storm doors and incorporating an air lock into the entrance door design.
Sets out the design and construction of pressure test rigs for use in studying leakage rates of windows and doorways in the Arts building of Sheffield University. Tests 7 doors (including fire doors) and selected windows, categorized according to deterioration of sealants. Finds that window leakage is far in excess of the suggested leakage from the CIBS guide (results of infiltration coefficients range from 0.911-6.097). Shows that 56% of the airflow across a doorway is due to the gap between the door bottom and the floor, and that weatherstripping the door reduces the flow by approx. 50%.
Discusses 2 reports by the Agrement Board which indicate that insulated doors in busy industrial buildings such as warehouses do not save much energy. Further studies by the Bolton Gate co. show that the addition of a plastic strip curtain gives significant savings. When a door is open for 5 mins perhour, the mean saving can be 15% depending on outside temperature and the air leakage of the curtain. When the door is open for 15 mins per hour, the mean saving can be 29%. States that it is easier to use plastic strip curtains with horizontal folding shutters than with doors.
States that draughtproofing doors and windows in industrial and commercial buildings offers the quickest payback of any energy conservation measure. Describes potential sources of leaks, such as ill-fitting entrance doors, and the types of material needed in draughtproofing industrial buildings according to durability and application.
Describes Schlegel's test chamber for measuring air and water infiltration around doors and windows. This can record infiltration at any point around the frame to high light the exact source of a leak. This is used to test the company's own draughtproofing and weathersealing products and is available to door and window manufacturers for development work.
Describes the ways heat is lost through doors, including flow characteristics, the effect of wind and the effect of temperature difference. Suggests that automatic doors will pay for themselves in terms of energy saved by cutting heat loss through entrances.
Gives a method of calculating the rate at which air enters a building, and how long it takes to reach a steady state, given the area of the door, the volume of the building and the air change rate caused by infiltration when the door is shut. Resulting heat losses are unacceptably high, but not as high as claimed by manufacturers of door closing devices.
Gives instructions for weatherstripping and caulking houses, indicating which materials are best for different jobs, and comparing prices. Covers jamb weatherstripping for doors and windows, weatherstripping for door bottoms, sealing the joist and attic spaces, and sealing around window and door openings.
Identifies the main categories of seal used in weatherstripping doors and windows. These include compression seals which are compressed during closure to form a seal, wiper seals which form a seal as they slide over a closing surface, and gap fillers and sealants which restore a fit between closing surfaces. Outlines broadly the merits and disadvantages of each, and provides general guidance on seal selection and application.
Notes that a considerable amount of energy escapes past external doors and the simplest way to avoid this loss is to make sure that doors close properly. Illustrates methods to achieve tight doors and considers inadequacies of certain door closers. Considers potential for development and improvement of heated sluices.