AIVC - Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre

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air leakage

Infiltration tests at Ringway House, Basingstoke

Describes the results of an investigation carried out to determine the rate of fresh air infiltration that is experienced during the winter in a modern air conditioned office building. Six different methods were employed to estimate the rate of infiltration through the building, four by direct measurement and two by calculation. The methods of direct measurement were,tracer gas decay, measured air flow through one floor, measured air flow through one air conditioning unit and measured change on power demand.

The formation of two-stage joints

Describes different methods for sealing joints. Gives method for testing permeability of joints to wind and rain. Concludes that two-stage joint seems to offer the greatest advantages which are long life, lack of need for maintenance, lack of sensitivity to tolerances, extensive lack of sensitivity to faulty installation practice and installation independent of the weather. Tests confirm that the wind permeability of two-stage joints can be practically disregarded in the determination of heat requirements.

Air infiltration through revolving doors.

Describes experiments made to determine the air infiltration rate through revolving doors. Estimates infiltration by combining air leakage past the door seals with infiltration caused by the revolving of the door. Finds that air exchange depends on door speed and temperature differential and somewhat on wind and indoor air velocities. Gives flow past the door seals as function of indoor -outdoor pressure differential and flow related to door movement for a motor- driven revolving door and for a manually operated door for traffic rates up to 2000 people per hour.

Resistance to air flow through external walls.

Summarises data on air flow characteristics of walls from U.S.A. and Norway. Reports laboratory measurements on four test walls and identifies main sources of leakage for the different test facades. Average air leakage at 200 Pa varied from 5m3/h/m2 to 50m3/h/m2. Shows that wall leakage rate could provide 30% or more of the total leakage rate.

Improvement of existing windows

Reports measurements made on windows in old blocks of flats in Sweden. Measurements were taken of air-leakage through 21 windows under different air pressures before and after the renewal of draught excluders between window frame and casement. Concludes that draught proofing of old windows is extremely effective. Heat flow through 18 double-glazed windows is also measured and two systems of converting double to triple glazing are studied. Conversion was found to improve u values by approximately 35%.

Thermal performance of wood windows and doors

Reports of tests on wood windows and doors to determine their thermal performance with and without wind. Additional tests to determine air infiltration effects were made and concludes that air infiltration has very small effect at low pressure differentials. Notes discrepancies between test results and ASHRAE design values especially when a 15m.p.h. wind was present. Recommends development of uniform testing and evaluation methods.

Some studies of infiltration of air through windows

Reports tests of air leakage through various types of window. Recommends introduction of standard for windows

Infiltration through plastered and unplastered brick walls.

Reports tests performed in walls to determine air leakage rates. Lower leakage rates were found with plastered wall than with brick wall and a further reduction in air leakage was obtained by painting the plaster.

Do modern storm windows reduce prime window air leakage?

Describes tests of air leakage performed on both prime windows and storm windows, separately and in tandem at wind velocities of up to 30.m.p.h. All types of windows were tested and upper and lower ranges for infiltration found.

Air infiltration through various types of brick wall construction.

Describes apparatus used to measure air leakage through walls, the types of walls and the test procedure. Gives results of tests on plain walls and shows the effect of adding plaster and paint. Concludes that infiltration rates of plain walls vary greatly. Of the three factors, affecting infiltration rates, workmanship is the most important, the composition of mortar next and the type of brick the least important. Finds that gypsum plaster stops almost all infiltration and that the application of paint reduces leakage.