Passivehouses in Europe with a specific energyrequirement of less than 30kWh/(m2a) total for heating, tap warm water, ventilation and household electricity have been realized in Darmstadt, FRG. Four families live in the dwellings with extreme thermal insulation, heat recovery and optimized use of passive solar energy. The measurement program includes more than 200 sensors; temperatures, comfort, energy flows, air flows and indoor air quality are monitored. With dynamic simulation comprising about 2000 cases of alternative design of the building components the project was optimized. The measurement results are used for the validation of the dynamic simulation of air flows and energy balances.
Passive houses in Europe - simulation, measurements and experience.
Germany, Stuttgart, Fraunhofer Institut fuer Bauphysik, 1993, proceeding, International Symposium Energy Efficient Buildings, Leinfelden - Echterdingen, Germany, March 9-11, 1993.