Presents results of measurements of ventilation rate and window air leakage made in blocks of flats in Sweden. Describes measurement of ventilation rate using nitrous oxide as a tracer gas and pressurization tests on windows. Gives graphical results of tests. Finds that the majority of windows do not satisfy 1975swedish building code. Reports measurements of air leakage of windows before and after renewal of draught excluders. Concludes that old windows can be made relatively draught-free and that this is not expensive or time consuming.
The building industry has always had considerable difficulty with joints in outer walls, at windows, doors and between building units. Damage caused by damp has meant considerable economic losses. New building methods and materials and stronger requirements in the indoor climate have accentuated the problem. Discusses use of fibreglass strips as a sealing agent. These can accommodate large movements in the joints, but the hermetic sealing properties are insufficient if there is a heavy damp load on the joint. Glass combined with plastic sheet can increase the hermetic sealing.
Reports a project to assess the value of weatherstripping windows and doors in a 30-year old home. Describes house and retrofitting technique using stainless steel weatherstrips. Air infiltration rates before and after retrofit were measured using three independent methods, tracer gas dilution using SF6,pressurization/depressurization for the whole house and depressurization of individual windows. Finds that air-change-rate for the whole house was reduced by 10-14.7%giving a predicted reduction of 15.5% for a complete retrofit which would result in an energy saving of 4-6%.
Weatherstrip for windows and doors were studied by full-scale tests with regard to airtightness, closing force and ageing properties. Tubular strips provided the highest degree of airtightness in both windows and doors, while angle strips were only slightly inferior in performance. The leakage of air was found to be considerably greater for strips of expanded and foam plastics and fibre strips. For tubular strips of small material thickness and for angle strips, the closing force in doors was low.
A sequel to the report "Air leakage through the openings in buildings", abstract. no 286. Reports investigation of the effect on air leakage of increasing the clearance around a sash window. Gives results of experiments in the form of graphs showing leakage for different wind velocities, different clearances, and with and without weatherstripping.
Describes tests made on fifty different weatherstrips. Tests were made in the laboratory of airtightness, rigidity, ageing, load tests, freeze tests and wear tests. Strips mounted in windows were tested for ageing and resistance to driving rain. Gives test methods and results and discusses the characteristics of eight main types of strip.
Describes plan to retrofit 25 townhouses at Twin Rivers evaluating retrofits by instrumenting each house to record energy consumption, temperature, window and door opening and furnace operation. Aim of the first round of retrofits was a payback period of no more than three years. Describes fourretrofits A,B,C and D. A,C and D improved attic and cellar insulation and insulated the heating system. B aimed to limitthe amount of air infiltration from cracks around doors and windows by weatherstripping. Early results showed gas savings of the order of 25% and electrical savings of 10%
Describes apparatus and test procedure used to measure air leakage through metal windows and gives test results. Concludes that infiltration loss through metal windows can be reduced by about 10% by locking an unweatherstripped window and by an average additional 56% by applying weatherstrips to the locked window.
Reports measurements made on windows in old blocks of flats in Sweden. Measurements were taken of air-leakage through 21 windows under different air pressures before and after the renewal of draught excluders between window frame and casement. Concludes that draught proofing of old windows is extremely effective. Heat flow through 18 double-glazed windows is also measured and two systems of converting double to triple glazing are studied. Conversion was found to improve u values by approximately 35%.