Presents a review of the literature and a survey of the various types of window insulation systems and methods which are available, together with notes on experience of their use. The potentials of selective coatings on glass are discussed and comparisons between triple-glazed windows and window insulation are presented.< The survey serves as a feasability study for a larger project of which the object is to investigate the size of the savings which are possible with insulation of windows under varying conditions.
Gives results of a statistical survey of energy consumption in British government buildings. Suggests one reason for high consumption may be excessive ventilation. Reports field trial of the effect of reducing natural ventilation in a London office building. Window frames were sealed with a rubber mastic, giving an annual fuel saving of 22%. Finds measure was highly cost effective with a payback period of less than three years.< Discusses problem of heat loss through large doors in hangars and workshops.
Notes that many existing dwellings are inadequately insulated and in need of caulking and weatherstripping. Gives criteria for the selection of retrofit materials which are eligible for the Department of Energy Weatherization Assistance Program. Materials discussed are insulation, storm windows and doors, caulks and sealants, weatherstripping, vapour barriers, clock thermostats and replacement windows. Discusses the literature on retrofitting. Describes the different caulks and sealants available. Outlines precautions to be taken when applying different retrofit materials.
Discusses materials and systems for reducing or eliminating air infiltration through identified leakage sources. Methods include caulking, adhesive/glass mat, weatherstripping, vent dampers etc. Gives recommended procedure for treating new and existing construction by pressurizing the building to detect air leaks, then retrofitting to reduce leakage. Cost effectiveness of the methods has not been reliably measured but the evidence suggests that many air infiltration reduction materials are highly cost effective. Gives bibliography of 233 citations.
Reports results of a project to assess energy conservation measures in a group of typical three-storey, naturally ventilated, blocks of flats, built in 1940 in Stockholm. The measures were:< 1) Improvement of boiler efficiency< 2) Weatherproofing of windows and doors< 3) Adjustment of the heating system and reduction of indoor temperature< 4) Additional insulation of attic floor<5) Additional insulation of external walls< Discusses the energy conservation effect and profitability of each measure.
A multitude of design strategies are available to achieve energy-efficient windows. Opportunities for improving window performance fall into six groups: site, exterior appendages, frame, glazing interior accessories, and building interior. Design strategies within these groups can improve one or more of the six energy functions of windows : solar heating, daylighting, shading, insulation, air tightness and ventilation. Gives 33 strategies for energy saving. Includes information on weatherstripping windbreaks, shutters, multiple glazing and many others.
This is a practical handbook for retrofitting existing buildings. Describes with illustrations the addition of insulation, weatherstripping windows, and doors, addition of triple glazing and the installation of a vapour barrier. Discusses the savings for three different climate zones in Sweden.
Reports measurements of natural ventilation and leakage rates in two test rooms in a university building. Describes rooms and instrumentation. Gives results of pressurization tests with windows closed but not sealed, sealed, and weatherstripped. Gives results of measurements of ventilation rate using N2O as a tracer gas. Discusses the analysis of results and experimental errors. Compares measured rates with ventilation rates calculated using crackand ASHRAE methods.
Reports measurements of air change rates made on approximately 250 dwellings, occupied by low income households in 14 cities, in all major climatic zones of the United States. Two types of measurements were used : a tracer-gas decay technique using air sample bags and a fan depressurization test that measures induced air exchange rates. Shows that for this group of dwellings natural air infiltration rates have an approximate lognormal distribution.