Describes the pollutant burdens on indoor air. Notes heat exchanges by air renewal and associated heat losses. Examines how to determine the required air change rate. Lists the minimum air changes for various types of building with and without smoking. Treats air infiltration. Considers how to reduce losses with air renewal by weather stripping, special air inlets, reduction of the indoor air temperature, heat recovery with controlled mechanical ventilation, heat pumps and heat pipes.
Describes methods of predicting concentration levels of indoor air pollution in a variety of residences by using residence air infiltration rates, residence volumes, and source terms, and by making assumptions about occupant lifestyle and poll
In large areas of the Swiss Alps, the high radium content of rocks and soil, which results in high source terms for radon from the ground, may produce considerable indoor levels of radon in dwellings with low air infiltration. During the winter
Describes a simple device which pressurises an enclosed volume of air adjacent to individual components in the building fabric. The air flow through the crackage is measured and the interdependence of the flow rate and pressure is examined. Windows, floors, loft traps and suspended ceilings are examined. A simple relationship is found to be applicable to individual components but no universal relationship is found for a general range of components with superficially similar cracks.
Air leaks which can bypass attic insulation in US wood framed houses are identified. Examples of heat loss paths include gaps at the entry of plumbing, heating or cooling ducts and electrics gaps around flues, and trapdoors. Remedial measures discussed include stuffing gaps with fibreglass, weatherstripping, taping polythene sheet over gaps, sealing and insulating ducts, and covering ceiling fan vents during the winter.
Presents results obtained in field studies of control and test houses provided with low cost retrofit infiltration controls. There are significant estimates of average energy savings during both heating and cooling seasons. However, the 95% confidence intervals for the heating season span the origin and theprobability that savings were actually observed is less than 85% for the heating season. The probability that actual savings were measured during the cooling season is >95%.
Presents the analysis of the effect of energy saving retrofits installed in low-income housing under a nationwide weatherization demonstration program. Weatherization techniques included caulking and weatherstripping, insulation and modification or replacement of heating systems. Two years of pre-retrofit fuel consumption data were analyzed to predict energy usage if the house had not been retrofitted. Energy reduction due to retrofitting was calculated from this. The average saving in fuel consumption for retrofitted dwellings was 30%.
Presents the results of tests on the air leakage characteristics of a number of different energy conservation products applied to a double hung window. Gives air leakage characteristics under simulated in-situ conditions atvarious wind speeds for the different products. Results show that interior shutters perform best, followed by interior storm windows, a reflective shade, quilts and standard window shades. Within a group, products involving perimeter sealing give the best air leakage characteristics.
Discusses the requirements of a first class weatherseal. Concludes that silicone rubber is the most effective material. Swedish research shows that silicone resists deformation and cracking better than other weathersealing materials, and that a thin wall tubular seal gives the highest resistance to air and water infiltration. Agrement Board tests show that this type of seal reduces air infiltration through a window from more than 40 m3 air/hour to less than 1m3 at a test pressure of 600Pa.
Describes the benefits of draughtproofing as a cost effective means of energy conservation with a low pay-back period. The Draught Proofing Advisory Association is trying to raise standards by the introduction of a new Code of Professional Practice. It is also approaching the government with regard to including draughtproofing within its Home Insulation Scheme.