Influence of open windows on the interzone air movement within a semi-detached dwelling.

A multicell air flow computer program is used to determine the influence of 1) open windows and 2) closed internal doors on the ventilation rate of a semi-detached house. The changes in interzone air movement and room air change rates are also examined. Tracer gas field measurements used to validate the multicell program show good agreement with the predicted values. Results show that opening windows can alter significantly, not only the overall ventilation rate of the building, but also the individual air change rates in rooms.

Verification of calculation models of air infiltration using three types of test houses.

In order to verify the calculation models of air infiltration using three wooden test houses which have the same type of construction but have different leakage distributions, airtightness of building components of these three houses were measured by means of the fan pressurization method, and then air infiltration was measured twenty-two times by C02 concentration decay technique.

Wind and infiltration interaction for small buildings.

Describes a model that predicts air infiltration from both wind and temperature influence to within 20%. Compares the predicted value and measured infiltration from a full-scale test structure, revealing an average discrepancy of less than 10 m3/hr (out of an average of approx 150 m3/hr). Presents direct measurements of the wind velocity and pressure coefficients induced by the wind on the full-scale test structure.

Comparisons of predicted and measured energy use in occupied buildings.

A number of studies have reported comparisons of building energy simulations to measured building performance. This paper summarizes results of studies of occupied buildings in which monitoring varied from very detailed tonon-existent, the comparison interval from hourly to yearly and the number of buildings from one to 200 plus. These results are briefly compared to results from unoccupied buildings and preliminary conclusions are presented about the use of building energy models for different types of field application.

The validation of DOE 2.1 for application to single-family dwellings.

Uses the building energy program DOE 2.1A with the objective of validating it for use with single-family dwellings. Carries out four studies, each with a different set of conditions. The first involves a single-story house with full basement, while the second involves a single-story house on a slab. Runsblower door tests to estimate infiltration. On a bimonthly basis, simulated heating energy differs from the measured value by up to 11%. The third study, using 75 similar houses with electrical resistance heating, shows an agreement of within 5% between simulated and actual measurements.

Determination of thermal parameters for an occupied house.

Investigates the energy performance of a two storey occupied gas heated house in Ontario Canada by means of steady state and dynamic analyses of measured data. Experimental results were obtained from a monitoring study done on an hourly basis.

A study of a probalistic model of wind induced ventilation.

There are several reports on studies of wind tunnel experiments and calculations on the response of air flow at an opening against the periodic variation of wind velocity and pressure. In these studies, the fluctuating components of natural wind velocity have been treated definitely. In this paper, theoretically derives the probability density function from a probabilistic model of wind velocity around the buildings, the consequent wind pressure, and the resulting ventilation rate and contamination concentration.

Monitoring and modelling of low-energy housing in Manchester June 1983

Describes the monitoring of 15 low energy houses built by Manchester City Council. Conservation measures include insulation, internal draught lobbies to exterior doors, draughtproofed windows and doors and tight building envelope, window ventilators with extract fans. Monitoring consists of a continuous recording of a limited number of basic parameters, and an intermittent recording of a larger number of variables at shorter time intervals. The monitoring apparatus yields electronically recorded digital data which is processed by computer.

Component leakage areas in residential buildings.

Reviews the published data on component air leakage, and from this compiles a set of component leakage figures for use in estimating leakage areas and their distribution in buildings. These calculations are compared with measurements of leakage areas in 36 houses in different locations in the US. The model predicts leakage area accurately for the average of the 36 houses, while for individual houses the standard deviation is about 20%. Discusses the assumptions and methods to convert other types of component leakage data to component leakage area.

Models of infiltration and natural ventilation.

Investigates the efficiency of models describing infiltration and natural ventilation in buildings. Considers 8 different models. The parameters of the models are determined by fit to data from 6 different ventilation experiments in residential buildings. The number of parameters in each model is varied and the effect of this on the model efficiency is evaluated. The effect of simple corrections of the models for a dependence on the wind direction is considered.